Toxic elements in biomass and waste fuels and their removal from the flue gases of fluidised bed boilers

Martti Aho, R. Eteläaho, B. Miller, D. Dugwell, R. Kandiyoti, B. Coda, R. Berger, K. Hein

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

Abstract

Hvb coal and fir bark, were combusted with Cl-rich waste fuels (plastic waste and paper sludge) under bubbling bed (BFB) combustion conditions. Vaporisation and distribution to ash streams were studied for those elements included in the EU's co-incineration directive (Hg, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Sb, As, V). Increase of Cl-concentration in the feedstock was observed to enhance the transfer of many toxic elements to finest fly ash, probably due to the formation of volatile chlorides in the FB furnace. The surface area to weight ratio of fly ash increases with decreasing particle size, causing increased condensation of volatilised trace elements onto the finest size fraction. Elements bound to ultra-fine fly as can pass through conventional gas cleaning devices along with genuinely gaseous species. As a result, the measured loss of toxic elements from the combustors studied was higher than predicted by the thermodynamic calculations.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEUBCE Conference Proceedings 2002
PublisherETA-Florence Renewable Energies
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - 2002
MoE publication typeB3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings
Event12th European Conference and Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection - Amsterdam, Netherlands
Duration: 17 Jun 200221 Jun 2002
Conference number: 12

Conference

Conference12th European Conference and Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection
CountryNetherlands
CityAmsterdam
Period17/06/0221/06/02

Fingerprint

fly ash
plastic waste
vaporization
biomass
bark
condensation
ash
surface area
combustion
thermodynamics
sludge
chloride
particle size
trace element
coal
gas
flue gas
boiler
fluidised bed
removal

Cite this

Aho, M., Eteläaho, R., Miller, B., Dugwell, D., Kandiyoti, R., Coda, B., ... Hein, K. (2002). Toxic elements in biomass and waste fuels and their removal from the flue gases of fluidised bed boilers. In EUBCE Conference Proceedings 2002 ETA-Florence Renewable Energies.
Aho, Martti ; Eteläaho, R. ; Miller, B. ; Dugwell, D. ; Kandiyoti, R. ; Coda, B. ; Berger, R. ; Hein, K. / Toxic elements in biomass and waste fuels and their removal from the flue gases of fluidised bed boilers. EUBCE Conference Proceedings 2002. ETA-Florence Renewable Energies, 2002.
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abstract = "Hvb coal and fir bark, were combusted with Cl-rich waste fuels (plastic waste and paper sludge) under bubbling bed (BFB) combustion conditions. Vaporisation and distribution to ash streams were studied for those elements included in the EU's co-incineration directive (Hg, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Sb, As, V). Increase of Cl-concentration in the feedstock was observed to enhance the transfer of many toxic elements to finest fly ash, probably due to the formation of volatile chlorides in the FB furnace. The surface area to weight ratio of fly ash increases with decreasing particle size, causing increased condensation of volatilised trace elements onto the finest size fraction. Elements bound to ultra-fine fly as can pass through conventional gas cleaning devices along with genuinely gaseous species. As a result, the measured loss of toxic elements from the combustors studied was higher than predicted by the thermodynamic calculations.",
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Aho, M, Eteläaho, R, Miller, B, Dugwell, D, Kandiyoti, R, Coda, B, Berger, R & Hein, K 2002, Toxic elements in biomass and waste fuels and their removal from the flue gases of fluidised bed boilers. in EUBCE Conference Proceedings 2002. ETA-Florence Renewable Energies, 12th European Conference and Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 17/06/02.

Toxic elements in biomass and waste fuels and their removal from the flue gases of fluidised bed boilers. / Aho, Martti; Eteläaho, R.; Miller, B.; Dugwell, D.; Kandiyoti, R.; Coda, B.; Berger, R.; Hein, K.

EUBCE Conference Proceedings 2002. ETA-Florence Renewable Energies, 2002.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

TY - GEN

T1 - Toxic elements in biomass and waste fuels and their removal from the flue gases of fluidised bed boilers

AU - Aho, Martti

AU - Eteläaho, R.

AU - Miller, B.

AU - Dugwell, D.

AU - Kandiyoti, R.

AU - Coda, B.

AU - Berger, R.

AU - Hein, K.

PY - 2002

Y1 - 2002

N2 - Hvb coal and fir bark, were combusted with Cl-rich waste fuels (plastic waste and paper sludge) under bubbling bed (BFB) combustion conditions. Vaporisation and distribution to ash streams were studied for those elements included in the EU's co-incineration directive (Hg, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Sb, As, V). Increase of Cl-concentration in the feedstock was observed to enhance the transfer of many toxic elements to finest fly ash, probably due to the formation of volatile chlorides in the FB furnace. The surface area to weight ratio of fly ash increases with decreasing particle size, causing increased condensation of volatilised trace elements onto the finest size fraction. Elements bound to ultra-fine fly as can pass through conventional gas cleaning devices along with genuinely gaseous species. As a result, the measured loss of toxic elements from the combustors studied was higher than predicted by the thermodynamic calculations.

AB - Hvb coal and fir bark, were combusted with Cl-rich waste fuels (plastic waste and paper sludge) under bubbling bed (BFB) combustion conditions. Vaporisation and distribution to ash streams were studied for those elements included in the EU's co-incineration directive (Hg, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Sb, As, V). Increase of Cl-concentration in the feedstock was observed to enhance the transfer of many toxic elements to finest fly ash, probably due to the formation of volatile chlorides in the FB furnace. The surface area to weight ratio of fly ash increases with decreasing particle size, causing increased condensation of volatilised trace elements onto the finest size fraction. Elements bound to ultra-fine fly as can pass through conventional gas cleaning devices along with genuinely gaseous species. As a result, the measured loss of toxic elements from the combustors studied was higher than predicted by the thermodynamic calculations.

M3 - Conference article in proceedings

BT - EUBCE Conference Proceedings 2002

PB - ETA-Florence Renewable Energies

ER -

Aho M, Eteläaho R, Miller B, Dugwell D, Kandiyoti R, Coda B et al. Toxic elements in biomass and waste fuels and their removal from the flue gases of fluidised bed boilers. In EUBCE Conference Proceedings 2002. ETA-Florence Renewable Energies. 2002