Toxicological effects of emission particles from fossil- and biodiesel-fueled diesel engine with and without DOC/POC catalytic converter

P. I. Jalava (Corresponding Author), M. Tapanainen, K. Kuuspalo, A. Markkanen, P. Hakulinen, M. S. Happo, A. S. Pennanen, M. Ihalainen, P. Yli-Pirilä, U. Makkonen, K. Teinilä, J. Mäki-Paakkanen, R. O. Salonen, Jorma Jokiniemi, M.-R. Hirvonen

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Abstract

There is increasing demand for renewable energy and the use of biodiesel in traffic is a major option when implying this increment. We investigated the toxicological activities of particulate emissions from a nonroad diesel engine, operated with conventional diesel fuel (EN590), and two biodiesels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and hydrotreated fresh vegetable oil (HVO). The engine was operated with all fuels either with or without catalyst (DOC/POC). The particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected from the dilution tunnel with a high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). These samples were characterized for ions, elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to the PM samples for 24 h. Inflammatory mediators, (TNF-α and MIP-2), cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS]) were measured. All the samples displayed mostly dose-dependent toxicological activity. EN590 and HVO emission particles had larger inflammatory responses than RME-derived particles. The catalyst somewhat increased the responses per the same mass unit. There were no substantial differences in the cytotoxic responses between the fuels or catalyst use. Genotoxic responses by all the particulate samples were at same level, except weaker for the RME sample with catalyst. Unlike other samples, EN590-derived particles did not significantly increase ROS production. Catalyst increased the oxidative potential of the EN590 and HVO-derived particles, but decreased that with RME. Overall, the use of biodiesel fuels and catalyst decreased the particulate mass emissions compared with the EN590 fuel. Similar studies with different types of diesel engines are needed to assess the potential benefits from biofuel use in engines with modern technologies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)48-58
JournalInhalation Toxicology
Volume22
Issue numberSuppl. 2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Catalytic converters
Brassica rapa
Biofuels
Toxicology
Plant Oils
Diesel engines
Esters
Catalysts
Reactive Oxygen Species
Renewable Energy
Gasoline
Particulate Matter
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Engines
Particulate emissions
Oxidative Stress
Oxidative stress
Macrophages
Ions
Cytotoxicity

Keywords

  • Biodiesel
  • cytotoxicity
  • genotoxicity
  • in vitro
  • inflammation
  • PM emissions
  • toxicoloty

Cite this

Jalava, P. I., Tapanainen, M., Kuuspalo, K., Markkanen, A., Hakulinen, P., Happo, M. S., ... Hirvonen, M-R. (2010). Toxicological effects of emission particles from fossil- and biodiesel-fueled diesel engine with and without DOC/POC catalytic converter. Inhalation Toxicology, 22(Suppl. 2), 48-58. https://doi.org/10.3109/08958378.2010.519009
Jalava, P. I. ; Tapanainen, M. ; Kuuspalo, K. ; Markkanen, A. ; Hakulinen, P. ; Happo, M. S. ; Pennanen, A. S. ; Ihalainen, M. ; Yli-Pirilä, P. ; Makkonen, U. ; Teinilä, K. ; Mäki-Paakkanen, J. ; Salonen, R. O. ; Jokiniemi, Jorma ; Hirvonen, M.-R. / Toxicological effects of emission particles from fossil- and biodiesel-fueled diesel engine with and without DOC/POC catalytic converter. In: Inhalation Toxicology. 2010 ; Vol. 22, No. Suppl. 2. pp. 48-58.
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title = "Toxicological effects of emission particles from fossil- and biodiesel-fueled diesel engine with and without DOC/POC catalytic converter",
abstract = "There is increasing demand for renewable energy and the use of biodiesel in traffic is a major option when implying this increment. We investigated the toxicological activities of particulate emissions from a nonroad diesel engine, operated with conventional diesel fuel (EN590), and two biodiesels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and hydrotreated fresh vegetable oil (HVO). The engine was operated with all fuels either with or without catalyst (DOC/POC). The particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected from the dilution tunnel with a high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). These samples were characterized for ions, elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to the PM samples for 24 h. Inflammatory mediators, (TNF-α and MIP-2), cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS]) were measured. All the samples displayed mostly dose-dependent toxicological activity. EN590 and HVO emission particles had larger inflammatory responses than RME-derived particles. The catalyst somewhat increased the responses per the same mass unit. There were no substantial differences in the cytotoxic responses between the fuels or catalyst use. Genotoxic responses by all the particulate samples were at same level, except weaker for the RME sample with catalyst. Unlike other samples, EN590-derived particles did not significantly increase ROS production. Catalyst increased the oxidative potential of the EN590 and HVO-derived particles, but decreased that with RME. Overall, the use of biodiesel fuels and catalyst decreased the particulate mass emissions compared with the EN590 fuel. Similar studies with different types of diesel engines are needed to assess the potential benefits from biofuel use in engines with modern technologies.",
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author = "Jalava, {P. I.} and M. Tapanainen and K. Kuuspalo and A. Markkanen and P. Hakulinen and Happo, {M. S.} and Pennanen, {A. S.} and M. Ihalainen and P. Yli-Piril{\"a} and U. Makkonen and K. Teinil{\"a} and J. M{\"a}ki-Paakkanen and Salonen, {R. O.} and Jorma Jokiniemi and M.-R. Hirvonen",
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Jalava, PI, Tapanainen, M, Kuuspalo, K, Markkanen, A, Hakulinen, P, Happo, MS, Pennanen, AS, Ihalainen, M, Yli-Pirilä, P, Makkonen, U, Teinilä, K, Mäki-Paakkanen, J, Salonen, RO, Jokiniemi, J & Hirvonen, M-R 2010, 'Toxicological effects of emission particles from fossil- and biodiesel-fueled diesel engine with and without DOC/POC catalytic converter', Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 22, no. Suppl. 2, pp. 48-58. https://doi.org/10.3109/08958378.2010.519009

Toxicological effects of emission particles from fossil- and biodiesel-fueled diesel engine with and without DOC/POC catalytic converter. / Jalava, P. I. (Corresponding Author); Tapanainen, M.; Kuuspalo, K.; Markkanen, A.; Hakulinen, P.; Happo, M. S.; Pennanen, A. S.; Ihalainen, M.; Yli-Pirilä, P.; Makkonen, U.; Teinilä, K.; Mäki-Paakkanen, J.; Salonen, R. O.; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, M.-R.

In: Inhalation Toxicology, Vol. 22, No. Suppl. 2, 2010, p. 48-58.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Toxicological effects of emission particles from fossil- and biodiesel-fueled diesel engine with and without DOC/POC catalytic converter

AU - Jalava, P. I.

AU - Tapanainen, M.

AU - Kuuspalo, K.

AU - Markkanen, A.

AU - Hakulinen, P.

AU - Happo, M. S.

AU - Pennanen, A. S.

AU - Ihalainen, M.

AU - Yli-Pirilä, P.

AU - Makkonen, U.

AU - Teinilä, K.

AU - Mäki-Paakkanen, J.

AU - Salonen, R. O.

AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma

AU - Hirvonen, M.-R.

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - There is increasing demand for renewable energy and the use of biodiesel in traffic is a major option when implying this increment. We investigated the toxicological activities of particulate emissions from a nonroad diesel engine, operated with conventional diesel fuel (EN590), and two biodiesels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and hydrotreated fresh vegetable oil (HVO). The engine was operated with all fuels either with or without catalyst (DOC/POC). The particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected from the dilution tunnel with a high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). These samples were characterized for ions, elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to the PM samples for 24 h. Inflammatory mediators, (TNF-α and MIP-2), cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS]) were measured. All the samples displayed mostly dose-dependent toxicological activity. EN590 and HVO emission particles had larger inflammatory responses than RME-derived particles. The catalyst somewhat increased the responses per the same mass unit. There were no substantial differences in the cytotoxic responses between the fuels or catalyst use. Genotoxic responses by all the particulate samples were at same level, except weaker for the RME sample with catalyst. Unlike other samples, EN590-derived particles did not significantly increase ROS production. Catalyst increased the oxidative potential of the EN590 and HVO-derived particles, but decreased that with RME. Overall, the use of biodiesel fuels and catalyst decreased the particulate mass emissions compared with the EN590 fuel. Similar studies with different types of diesel engines are needed to assess the potential benefits from biofuel use in engines with modern technologies.

AB - There is increasing demand for renewable energy and the use of biodiesel in traffic is a major option when implying this increment. We investigated the toxicological activities of particulate emissions from a nonroad diesel engine, operated with conventional diesel fuel (EN590), and two biodiesels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and hydrotreated fresh vegetable oil (HVO). The engine was operated with all fuels either with or without catalyst (DOC/POC). The particulate matter (PM1) samples were collected from the dilution tunnel with a high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). These samples were characterized for ions, elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to the PM samples for 24 h. Inflammatory mediators, (TNF-α and MIP-2), cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS]) were measured. All the samples displayed mostly dose-dependent toxicological activity. EN590 and HVO emission particles had larger inflammatory responses than RME-derived particles. The catalyst somewhat increased the responses per the same mass unit. There were no substantial differences in the cytotoxic responses between the fuels or catalyst use. Genotoxic responses by all the particulate samples were at same level, except weaker for the RME sample with catalyst. Unlike other samples, EN590-derived particles did not significantly increase ROS production. Catalyst increased the oxidative potential of the EN590 and HVO-derived particles, but decreased that with RME. Overall, the use of biodiesel fuels and catalyst decreased the particulate mass emissions compared with the EN590 fuel. Similar studies with different types of diesel engines are needed to assess the potential benefits from biofuel use in engines with modern technologies.

KW - Biodiesel

KW - cytotoxicity

KW - genotoxicity

KW - in vitro

KW - inflammation

KW - PM emissions

KW - toxicoloty

U2 - 10.3109/08958378.2010.519009

DO - 10.3109/08958378.2010.519009

M3 - Article

VL - 22

SP - 48

EP - 58

JO - Inhalation Toxicology

JF - Inhalation Toxicology

SN - 0895-8378

IS - Suppl. 2

ER -