Toxinogenic Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis from mastitic milk

T. Nieminen, N. Rintaluoma, M. Andersson, A.-M. Taimisto, T. Ali-Vehmas, A. Seppälä, Outi Priha, Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen

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Abstract

To elucidate the occurrence of heat-stable toxin-producing strains among mastitic Bacillus isolates, 100 milk samples of mastitic cows from different parts of Finland were screened. Bacillus was identified as the major organism in 23 samples. Toxinogenic Bacillus isolates identified by sperm cell motility inhibition assay were isolated from six samples. Four isolates belonged to the species Bacillus pumilus and two to Bacillus licheniformis. The toxic substances were heat-stable and soluble to methanol thus being of non-protein nature. The methanol extracted substances disrupted the sperm cell plasma membrane permeability barrier at exposure concentrations of 1–15 ìg ml−1 (B. pumilus) or 20–30 ìg ml−1 (B. licheniformis). The toxic properties of the two mastitic B. licheniformis strains were similar to those of B. licheniformis strains known to produce the lipopeptide lichenysin A and the synthetase genes lchAA, lchAB and lchAC for lichenysin were found in the mastitic strains by PCR. Toxin synthetase genes for the syntheses of lichenysin or surfactin were searched but not found in the toxic B. pumilus strains. The ribopatterns of the mastitic B. pumilus and B. licheniformis isolates were similar to those of the toxinogenic strains described earlier from food poisoning incidents and contaminated indoor air. B. licheniformis and B. pumilus survive pasteurization and other heat treatments as spores. Toxin-producing strains of these species in the dairy production chain may thus be of food safety concern.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)329-339
JournalVeterinary Microbiology
Volume124
Issue number3-4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Bacillus pumilus
Bacillus licheniformis
Milk
milk
Poisons
Bacillus (bacteria)
Bacillus
Hot Temperature
toxins
Methanol
ligases
Cell Migration Assays
Cell Membrane Permeability
methanol
Lipopeptides
Pasteurization
surfactin
spermatozoa
Foodborne Diseases
lipopeptides

Keywords

  • Bacillus pumilus
  • Bacillus licheniformis
  • Mastitis
  • PCR
  • Toxin
  • Cereulide
  • Lichenysin
  • Surfactin

Cite this

Nieminen, T., Rintaluoma, N., Andersson, M., Taimisto, A-M., Ali-Vehmas, T., Seppälä, A., ... Salkinoja-Salonen, M. (2007). Toxinogenic Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis from mastitic milk. Veterinary Microbiology, 124(3-4), 329-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.05.015
Nieminen, T. ; Rintaluoma, N. ; Andersson, M. ; Taimisto, A.-M. ; Ali-Vehmas, T. ; Seppälä, A. ; Priha, Outi ; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja. / Toxinogenic Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis from mastitic milk. In: Veterinary Microbiology. 2007 ; Vol. 124, No. 3-4. pp. 329-339.
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abstract = "To elucidate the occurrence of heat-stable toxin-producing strains among mastitic Bacillus isolates, 100 milk samples of mastitic cows from different parts of Finland were screened. Bacillus was identified as the major organism in 23 samples. Toxinogenic Bacillus isolates identified by sperm cell motility inhibition assay were isolated from six samples. Four isolates belonged to the species Bacillus pumilus and two to Bacillus licheniformis. The toxic substances were heat-stable and soluble to methanol thus being of non-protein nature. The methanol extracted substances disrupted the sperm cell plasma membrane permeability barrier at exposure concentrations of 1–15 {\`i}g ml−1 (B. pumilus) or 20–30 {\`i}g ml−1 (B. licheniformis). The toxic properties of the two mastitic B. licheniformis strains were similar to those of B. licheniformis strains known to produce the lipopeptide lichenysin A and the synthetase genes lchAA, lchAB and lchAC for lichenysin were found in the mastitic strains by PCR. Toxin synthetase genes for the syntheses of lichenysin or surfactin were searched but not found in the toxic B. pumilus strains. The ribopatterns of the mastitic B. pumilus and B. licheniformis isolates were similar to those of the toxinogenic strains described earlier from food poisoning incidents and contaminated indoor air. B. licheniformis and B. pumilus survive pasteurization and other heat treatments as spores. Toxin-producing strains of these species in the dairy production chain may thus be of food safety concern.",
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Nieminen, T, Rintaluoma, N, Andersson, M, Taimisto, A-M, Ali-Vehmas, T, Seppälä, A, Priha, O & Salkinoja-Salonen, M 2007, 'Toxinogenic Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis from mastitic milk', Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 124, no. 3-4, pp. 329-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.05.015

Toxinogenic Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis from mastitic milk. / Nieminen, T.; Rintaluoma, N.; Andersson, M.; Taimisto, A.-M.; Ali-Vehmas, T.; Seppälä, A.; Priha, Outi; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja.

In: Veterinary Microbiology, Vol. 124, No. 3-4, 2007, p. 329-339.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Toxinogenic Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis from mastitic milk

AU - Nieminen, T.

AU - Rintaluoma, N.

AU - Andersson, M.

AU - Taimisto, A.-M.

AU - Ali-Vehmas, T.

AU - Seppälä, A.

AU - Priha, Outi

AU - Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

PY - 2007

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N2 - To elucidate the occurrence of heat-stable toxin-producing strains among mastitic Bacillus isolates, 100 milk samples of mastitic cows from different parts of Finland were screened. Bacillus was identified as the major organism in 23 samples. Toxinogenic Bacillus isolates identified by sperm cell motility inhibition assay were isolated from six samples. Four isolates belonged to the species Bacillus pumilus and two to Bacillus licheniformis. The toxic substances were heat-stable and soluble to methanol thus being of non-protein nature. The methanol extracted substances disrupted the sperm cell plasma membrane permeability barrier at exposure concentrations of 1–15 ìg ml−1 (B. pumilus) or 20–30 ìg ml−1 (B. licheniformis). The toxic properties of the two mastitic B. licheniformis strains were similar to those of B. licheniformis strains known to produce the lipopeptide lichenysin A and the synthetase genes lchAA, lchAB and lchAC for lichenysin were found in the mastitic strains by PCR. Toxin synthetase genes for the syntheses of lichenysin or surfactin were searched but not found in the toxic B. pumilus strains. The ribopatterns of the mastitic B. pumilus and B. licheniformis isolates were similar to those of the toxinogenic strains described earlier from food poisoning incidents and contaminated indoor air. B. licheniformis and B. pumilus survive pasteurization and other heat treatments as spores. Toxin-producing strains of these species in the dairy production chain may thus be of food safety concern.

AB - To elucidate the occurrence of heat-stable toxin-producing strains among mastitic Bacillus isolates, 100 milk samples of mastitic cows from different parts of Finland were screened. Bacillus was identified as the major organism in 23 samples. Toxinogenic Bacillus isolates identified by sperm cell motility inhibition assay were isolated from six samples. Four isolates belonged to the species Bacillus pumilus and two to Bacillus licheniformis. The toxic substances were heat-stable and soluble to methanol thus being of non-protein nature. The methanol extracted substances disrupted the sperm cell plasma membrane permeability barrier at exposure concentrations of 1–15 ìg ml−1 (B. pumilus) or 20–30 ìg ml−1 (B. licheniformis). The toxic properties of the two mastitic B. licheniformis strains were similar to those of B. licheniformis strains known to produce the lipopeptide lichenysin A and the synthetase genes lchAA, lchAB and lchAC for lichenysin were found in the mastitic strains by PCR. Toxin synthetase genes for the syntheses of lichenysin or surfactin were searched but not found in the toxic B. pumilus strains. The ribopatterns of the mastitic B. pumilus and B. licheniformis isolates were similar to those of the toxinogenic strains described earlier from food poisoning incidents and contaminated indoor air. B. licheniformis and B. pumilus survive pasteurization and other heat treatments as spores. Toxin-producing strains of these species in the dairy production chain may thus be of food safety concern.

KW - Bacillus pumilus

KW - Bacillus licheniformis

KW - Mastitis

KW - PCR

KW - Toxin

KW - Cereulide

KW - Lichenysin

KW - Surfactin

U2 - 10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.05.015

DO - 10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.05.015

M3 - Article

VL - 124

SP - 329

EP - 339

JO - Veterinary Microbiology

JF - Veterinary Microbiology

SN - 0378-1135

IS - 3-4

ER -

Nieminen T, Rintaluoma N, Andersson M, Taimisto A-M, Ali-Vehmas T, Seppälä A et al. Toxinogenic Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis from mastitic milk. Veterinary Microbiology. 2007;124(3-4):329-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.05.015