Trace elements found in the fuel and in-furnace fine particles collected from 80MW BFB combusting solid recovered fuel

Pasi Vainikka (Corresponding Author), D. Lindberg, Antero Moilanen, H. Ollila, M. Tiainen, J. Silvennoinen, M. Hupa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The main fine particle (dp < 1 μm) forming elements found in combustion gases of anthropogenic waste or biomass fired boilers are typically K, Na and Cl, possibly complemented with S. When these are excluded, in solid recovered fuel (SRF) combustion the main elements were found to be: Ba, Br, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn. Fine particle composition is presented for 6 different furnace heights of a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boiler. As the fine particles are formed of vaporized ash species the experimental results are discussed with the support of thermodynamic equilibrium modeling for estimating the forms of the gaseous elements in the furnace. The occurrence of bromine was found to be similar to chlorine as the main forms of bromine in the furnace were estimated to be KBr(g) and NaBr(g) complemented with CuBr3(g). It is proposed that the trace elements mentioned originate mainly from plastics and rubber where they are used as production additives, stabilisers, dyes, colorants and flame retardants. Cr, Cu and Zn may originate to a large extent from alloys and other metallic impurities. SEM-EDS analyses carried out for the SRF supports the postulated origin of the elements.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)202-211
Number of pages10
JournalFuel Processing Technology
Volume105
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Trace Elements
Trace elements
Fluidized beds
Bromine
Furnaces
Ashes
Boilers
Flame Retardants
Stabilizers (agents)
Chlorine
Rubber
Flame retardants
Energy dispersive spectroscopy
Biomass
Coloring Agents
Dyes
Gases
Thermodynamics
Impurities
Plastics

Keywords

  • SRF
  • RDF
  • fine particles
  • trace elements
  • bromine
  • sludge

Cite this

Vainikka, Pasi ; Lindberg, D. ; Moilanen, Antero ; Ollila, H. ; Tiainen, M. ; Silvennoinen, J. ; Hupa, M. / Trace elements found in the fuel and in-furnace fine particles collected from 80MW BFB combusting solid recovered fuel. In: Fuel Processing Technology. 2013 ; Vol. 105. pp. 202-211.
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Trace elements found in the fuel and in-furnace fine particles collected from 80MW BFB combusting solid recovered fuel. / Vainikka, Pasi (Corresponding Author); Lindberg, D.; Moilanen, Antero; Ollila, H.; Tiainen, M.; Silvennoinen, J.; Hupa, M.

In: Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 105, 2013, p. 202-211.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Trace elements found in the fuel and in-furnace fine particles collected from 80MW BFB combusting solid recovered fuel

AU - Vainikka, Pasi

AU - Lindberg, D.

AU - Moilanen, Antero

AU - Ollila, H.

AU - Tiainen, M.

AU - Silvennoinen, J.

AU - Hupa, M.

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - The main fine particle (dp < 1 μm) forming elements found in combustion gases of anthropogenic waste or biomass fired boilers are typically K, Na and Cl, possibly complemented with S. When these are excluded, in solid recovered fuel (SRF) combustion the main elements were found to be: Ba, Br, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn. Fine particle composition is presented for 6 different furnace heights of a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boiler. As the fine particles are formed of vaporized ash species the experimental results are discussed with the support of thermodynamic equilibrium modeling for estimating the forms of the gaseous elements in the furnace. The occurrence of bromine was found to be similar to chlorine as the main forms of bromine in the furnace were estimated to be KBr(g) and NaBr(g) complemented with CuBr3(g). It is proposed that the trace elements mentioned originate mainly from plastics and rubber where they are used as production additives, stabilisers, dyes, colorants and flame retardants. Cr, Cu and Zn may originate to a large extent from alloys and other metallic impurities. SEM-EDS analyses carried out for the SRF supports the postulated origin of the elements.

AB - The main fine particle (dp < 1 μm) forming elements found in combustion gases of anthropogenic waste or biomass fired boilers are typically K, Na and Cl, possibly complemented with S. When these are excluded, in solid recovered fuel (SRF) combustion the main elements were found to be: Ba, Br, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn. Fine particle composition is presented for 6 different furnace heights of a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boiler. As the fine particles are formed of vaporized ash species the experimental results are discussed with the support of thermodynamic equilibrium modeling for estimating the forms of the gaseous elements in the furnace. The occurrence of bromine was found to be similar to chlorine as the main forms of bromine in the furnace were estimated to be KBr(g) and NaBr(g) complemented with CuBr3(g). It is proposed that the trace elements mentioned originate mainly from plastics and rubber where they are used as production additives, stabilisers, dyes, colorants and flame retardants. Cr, Cu and Zn may originate to a large extent from alloys and other metallic impurities. SEM-EDS analyses carried out for the SRF supports the postulated origin of the elements.

KW - SRF

KW - RDF

KW - fine particles

KW - trace elements

KW - bromine

KW - sludge

U2 - 10.1016/j.fuproc.2011.06.023

DO - 10.1016/j.fuproc.2011.06.023

M3 - Article

VL - 105

SP - 202

EP - 211

JO - Fuel Processing Technology

JF - Fuel Processing Technology

SN - 0378-3820

ER -