Trace gas detection of benzene, toluene, p-, m- and o-xylene with a compact measurement system using cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and optical parametric oscillator

Christian B. Hirschmann (Corresponding Author), Sauli Sinisalo, Juho Uotila, Satu Ojala, Riitta L. Keiski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A compact measurement system based on a novel combination of cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (CEPAS) and optical parametric oscillator (OPO) was applied to the gas phase measurement of benzene, toluene, and o-, m- and p-xylene (BTX) traces. The OPO had a band width (FWHM) of 1.3 nm, was tuned from 3237 to 3296 nm in steps of 0.1 nm and so spectra of BTX at different concentrations were recorded. The power emitted by the OPO increased from 88 mW at 3237 nm to 103 mW at 3296 nm. The univariate detection limits (3σ, 0.951 s) for benzene, toluene, p-, m- and o-xylene at 3288 nm were 12.0, 9.8, 13.2, 10.1 and 16.0 ppb, respectively. Multivariate data analysis using science-based calibration was used to resolve the interference of the analytes. The multivariate detection limits (3σ, 3237–3296 nm, 591 spectral points each 0.951 s) for benzene, toluene, p-, m- and o-xylene in the multi-compound sample, where all other analytes and water interfere were 4.3, 7.4, 11.0, 12.5 and 6.2 ppb, respectively. Without interferents, the multivariate detection limits varied between 0.5 and 0.6 ppb. The sum of the cross-selectivities (3237–3296 nm, 591 spectral points, each 0.951 s) per analyte were below 0.05 ppb/ppb, with an average of 0.038 ppb/ppb. The cross-selectivity of water to the analytes was on average 1.22 × 10−4 ppb/ppb. The OPO is small in size (L × W × H 125 × 70 × 45 mm), commercially available, and easy to operate and integrate to setups. The combination with sensitive CEPAS enables compact measurement systems for industrial as well as environmental trace gas monitoring.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)170-176
JournalVibrational Spectroscopy
Volume68
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Photoacoustic spectroscopy
Optical parametric oscillators
Toluene
Benzene
Gases
Gas fuel measurement
Phase measurement
Water
Full width at half maximum
Calibration
Bandwidth
3-xylene
2-xylene
Monitoring

Keywords

  • photoacoustic spectroscopy
  • cantilever microphone
  • optical parametric oscillator
  • benzene
  • toluene
  • xylenes

Cite this

@article{eb0cf2d9c6e147ca83231f8fc32f09b0,
title = "Trace gas detection of benzene, toluene, p-, m- and o-xylene with a compact measurement system using cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and optical parametric oscillator",
abstract = "A compact measurement system based on a novel combination of cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (CEPAS) and optical parametric oscillator (OPO) was applied to the gas phase measurement of benzene, toluene, and o-, m- and p-xylene (BTX) traces. The OPO had a band width (FWHM) of 1.3 nm, was tuned from 3237 to 3296 nm in steps of 0.1 nm and so spectra of BTX at different concentrations were recorded. The power emitted by the OPO increased from 88 mW at 3237 nm to 103 mW at 3296 nm. The univariate detection limits (3σ, 0.951 s) for benzene, toluene, p-, m- and o-xylene at 3288 nm were 12.0, 9.8, 13.2, 10.1 and 16.0 ppb, respectively. Multivariate data analysis using science-based calibration was used to resolve the interference of the analytes. The multivariate detection limits (3σ, 3237–3296 nm, 591 spectral points each 0.951 s) for benzene, toluene, p-, m- and o-xylene in the multi-compound sample, where all other analytes and water interfere were 4.3, 7.4, 11.0, 12.5 and 6.2 ppb, respectively. Without interferents, the multivariate detection limits varied between 0.5 and 0.6 ppb. The sum of the cross-selectivities (3237–3296 nm, 591 spectral points, each 0.951 s) per analyte were below 0.05 ppb/ppb, with an average of 0.038 ppb/ppb. The cross-selectivity of water to the analytes was on average 1.22 × 10−4 ppb/ppb. The OPO is small in size (L × W × H 125 × 70 × 45 mm), commercially available, and easy to operate and integrate to setups. The combination with sensitive CEPAS enables compact measurement systems for industrial as well as environmental trace gas monitoring.",
keywords = "photoacoustic spectroscopy, cantilever microphone, optical parametric oscillator, benzene, toluene, xylenes",
author = "Hirschmann, {Christian B.} and Sauli Sinisalo and Juho Uotila and Satu Ojala and Keiski, {Riitta L.}",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.1016/j.vibspec.2013.07.004",
language = "English",
volume = "68",
pages = "170--176",
journal = "Vibrational Spectroscopy",
issn = "0924-2031",
publisher = "Elsevier",

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Trace gas detection of benzene, toluene, p-, m- and o-xylene with a compact measurement system using cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and optical parametric oscillator. / Hirschmann, Christian B. (Corresponding Author); Sinisalo, Sauli; Uotila, Juho; Ojala, Satu; Keiski, Riitta L.

In: Vibrational Spectroscopy, Vol. 68, 2013, p. 170-176.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Trace gas detection of benzene, toluene, p-, m- and o-xylene with a compact measurement system using cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and optical parametric oscillator

AU - Hirschmann, Christian B.

AU - Sinisalo, Sauli

AU - Uotila, Juho

AU - Ojala, Satu

AU - Keiski, Riitta L.

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - A compact measurement system based on a novel combination of cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (CEPAS) and optical parametric oscillator (OPO) was applied to the gas phase measurement of benzene, toluene, and o-, m- and p-xylene (BTX) traces. The OPO had a band width (FWHM) of 1.3 nm, was tuned from 3237 to 3296 nm in steps of 0.1 nm and so spectra of BTX at different concentrations were recorded. The power emitted by the OPO increased from 88 mW at 3237 nm to 103 mW at 3296 nm. The univariate detection limits (3σ, 0.951 s) for benzene, toluene, p-, m- and o-xylene at 3288 nm were 12.0, 9.8, 13.2, 10.1 and 16.0 ppb, respectively. Multivariate data analysis using science-based calibration was used to resolve the interference of the analytes. The multivariate detection limits (3σ, 3237–3296 nm, 591 spectral points each 0.951 s) for benzene, toluene, p-, m- and o-xylene in the multi-compound sample, where all other analytes and water interfere were 4.3, 7.4, 11.0, 12.5 and 6.2 ppb, respectively. Without interferents, the multivariate detection limits varied between 0.5 and 0.6 ppb. The sum of the cross-selectivities (3237–3296 nm, 591 spectral points, each 0.951 s) per analyte were below 0.05 ppb/ppb, with an average of 0.038 ppb/ppb. The cross-selectivity of water to the analytes was on average 1.22 × 10−4 ppb/ppb. The OPO is small in size (L × W × H 125 × 70 × 45 mm), commercially available, and easy to operate and integrate to setups. The combination with sensitive CEPAS enables compact measurement systems for industrial as well as environmental trace gas monitoring.

AB - A compact measurement system based on a novel combination of cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (CEPAS) and optical parametric oscillator (OPO) was applied to the gas phase measurement of benzene, toluene, and o-, m- and p-xylene (BTX) traces. The OPO had a band width (FWHM) of 1.3 nm, was tuned from 3237 to 3296 nm in steps of 0.1 nm and so spectra of BTX at different concentrations were recorded. The power emitted by the OPO increased from 88 mW at 3237 nm to 103 mW at 3296 nm. The univariate detection limits (3σ, 0.951 s) for benzene, toluene, p-, m- and o-xylene at 3288 nm were 12.0, 9.8, 13.2, 10.1 and 16.0 ppb, respectively. Multivariate data analysis using science-based calibration was used to resolve the interference of the analytes. The multivariate detection limits (3σ, 3237–3296 nm, 591 spectral points each 0.951 s) for benzene, toluene, p-, m- and o-xylene in the multi-compound sample, where all other analytes and water interfere were 4.3, 7.4, 11.0, 12.5 and 6.2 ppb, respectively. Without interferents, the multivariate detection limits varied between 0.5 and 0.6 ppb. The sum of the cross-selectivities (3237–3296 nm, 591 spectral points, each 0.951 s) per analyte were below 0.05 ppb/ppb, with an average of 0.038 ppb/ppb. The cross-selectivity of water to the analytes was on average 1.22 × 10−4 ppb/ppb. The OPO is small in size (L × W × H 125 × 70 × 45 mm), commercially available, and easy to operate and integrate to setups. The combination with sensitive CEPAS enables compact measurement systems for industrial as well as environmental trace gas monitoring.

KW - photoacoustic spectroscopy

KW - cantilever microphone

KW - optical parametric oscillator

KW - benzene

KW - toluene

KW - xylenes

U2 - 10.1016/j.vibspec.2013.07.004

DO - 10.1016/j.vibspec.2013.07.004

M3 - Article

VL - 68

SP - 170

EP - 176

JO - Vibrational Spectroscopy

JF - Vibrational Spectroscopy

SN - 0924-2031

ER -