Traceability and Characterization of a 1000 kV HVDC Reference Divider

Alf-Peter Elg, Anders Bergman, Jari Hällström, Mohammad Kharezy, Tatu Nieminen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    11 Citations (Scopus)


    This paper presents the characterization of a resistive high-voltage dc (HVDC) reference divider and methods to establish traceability. The divider is designed for use as a laboratory reference for calibration of HVDC measuring systems up to 1000 kV. Targeting a measurement uncertainty of 20 µV/V at full voltage has put a focus on the temperature coefficients of the resistors, elimination of humidity dependence, and control of leakage currents in the high-voltage arm. A scale factor calibration against a 50 kV divider at 10 kV leads to an expanded uncertainty of 15 µV/VV/V.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1709-1715
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 2015
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • High-voltage dc (HVDC) transmission
    • high-voltage techniques
    • measurement standards
    • uncertainty
    • voltage dividers


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