Traffic emissions in Russia and the Baltic States: St.Petersburg, Leningrad Oblast, Republic of Karelia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

Kari Mäkelä, Markku Salo

Research output: Book/ReportReport

Abstract

Exhaust gas emissions of traffic were examined in the areas of St.Petersburg, Leningrad Oblast, Republic of Karelia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The Following compounds were studied: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particles, sulphur dioxide (SO2), lead (Pb) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The traffic modes examined were road traffic, railway traffic, air traffic and waterway traffic. The emission calculations are based on mileage, cycles, fuel consumption and specific emissions. The base year of the calculations is 1992. This overall study of traffic emissions is the first of its kind in the area of the former Soviet Union. The author of this report has made a study of Estonian road traffic emissions in 1990. The city of St.Petersburg dominates in emissions, as was to be expected. The amount of emissions are quite well in proportion to population. Road traffic is by far the greatest emission source in total traffic emissions. Next are railway, waterway and air traffic. At the moment, reliable information on emissions from stationary sources is available only in Estonia. There the emission share of traffic is about 55 % of nitrogen oxide (NOx). For sulphur dioxide (SO2) the share of traffic is about 1 %. These shares have remained approximately unchanged since 1989. The year 1989 can be considered as a peak year in mileage and emissions in the area of the former Soviet Union. After that year, the political and economic changes significantly decreased the amount of mileage and emissions, especially in the Baltic States. Probably the minimum year for traffic emissions is the base year of this study, 1992. In Estonia, emissions were halved compared with 1989. In Russia the decrease was not as big. After 1992, emissions started to rise rapidly because of the growth in transport demands and the increase in overall activity. The western vehicle fleet is growing rapidly. The specific emissions of western vehicles are clearly smaller than those of Russian vehicles. Total emissions have not decreased, however, owing to the rapid increase in mileage. Traffic emissions will also increase in the years to come.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages50
ISBN (Print)951-38-4663-6
Publication statusPublished - 1994
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

SeriesVTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes
Number1569
ISSN1235-0605

Fingerprint

traffic emission
nitrogen oxides
sulfur dioxide
railway
fuel consumption
carbon monoxide
traffic
carbon dioxide
hydrocarbon

Keywords

  • vehicular traffic
  • air traffic
  • water traffic
  • railroads
  • exhaust emissions
  • air pollution
  • exhaust gases
  • calculations
  • transportation
  • Russia
  • Baltic States
  • St.Petersburg
  • Leningrad Oblast
  • Republic of Karelia
  • Estonia
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania

Cite this

Mäkelä, K., & Salo, M. (1994). Traffic emissions in Russia and the Baltic States: St.Petersburg, Leningrad Oblast, Republic of Karelia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes, No. 1569
Mäkelä, Kari ; Salo, Markku. / Traffic emissions in Russia and the Baltic States : St.Petersburg, Leningrad Oblast, Republic of Karelia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1994. 50 p. (VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes; No. 1569).
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abstract = "Exhaust gas emissions of traffic were examined in the areas of St.Petersburg, Leningrad Oblast, Republic of Karelia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The Following compounds were studied: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particles, sulphur dioxide (SO2), lead (Pb) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The traffic modes examined were road traffic, railway traffic, air traffic and waterway traffic. The emission calculations are based on mileage, cycles, fuel consumption and specific emissions. The base year of the calculations is 1992. This overall study of traffic emissions is the first of its kind in the area of the former Soviet Union. The author of this report has made a study of Estonian road traffic emissions in 1990. The city of St.Petersburg dominates in emissions, as was to be expected. The amount of emissions are quite well in proportion to population. Road traffic is by far the greatest emission source in total traffic emissions. Next are railway, waterway and air traffic. At the moment, reliable information on emissions from stationary sources is available only in Estonia. There the emission share of traffic is about 55 {\%} of nitrogen oxide (NOx). For sulphur dioxide (SO2) the share of traffic is about 1 {\%}. These shares have remained approximately unchanged since 1989. The year 1989 can be considered as a peak year in mileage and emissions in the area of the former Soviet Union. After that year, the political and economic changes significantly decreased the amount of mileage and emissions, especially in the Baltic States. Probably the minimum year for traffic emissions is the base year of this study, 1992. In Estonia, emissions were halved compared with 1989. In Russia the decrease was not as big. After 1992, emissions started to rise rapidly because of the growth in transport demands and the increase in overall activity. The western vehicle fleet is growing rapidly. The specific emissions of western vehicles are clearly smaller than those of Russian vehicles. Total emissions have not decreased, however, owing to the rapid increase in mileage. Traffic emissions will also increase in the years to come.",
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Mäkelä, K & Salo, M 1994, Traffic emissions in Russia and the Baltic States: St.Petersburg, Leningrad Oblast, Republic of Karelia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes, no. 1569, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.

Traffic emissions in Russia and the Baltic States : St.Petersburg, Leningrad Oblast, Republic of Karelia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. / Mäkelä, Kari; Salo, Markku.

Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1994. 50 p. (VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes; No. 1569).

Research output: Book/ReportReport

TY - BOOK

T1 - Traffic emissions in Russia and the Baltic States

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AU - Mäkelä, Kari

AU - Salo, Markku

PY - 1994

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N2 - Exhaust gas emissions of traffic were examined in the areas of St.Petersburg, Leningrad Oblast, Republic of Karelia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The Following compounds were studied: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particles, sulphur dioxide (SO2), lead (Pb) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The traffic modes examined were road traffic, railway traffic, air traffic and waterway traffic. The emission calculations are based on mileage, cycles, fuel consumption and specific emissions. The base year of the calculations is 1992. This overall study of traffic emissions is the first of its kind in the area of the former Soviet Union. The author of this report has made a study of Estonian road traffic emissions in 1990. The city of St.Petersburg dominates in emissions, as was to be expected. The amount of emissions are quite well in proportion to population. Road traffic is by far the greatest emission source in total traffic emissions. Next are railway, waterway and air traffic. At the moment, reliable information on emissions from stationary sources is available only in Estonia. There the emission share of traffic is about 55 % of nitrogen oxide (NOx). For sulphur dioxide (SO2) the share of traffic is about 1 %. These shares have remained approximately unchanged since 1989. The year 1989 can be considered as a peak year in mileage and emissions in the area of the former Soviet Union. After that year, the political and economic changes significantly decreased the amount of mileage and emissions, especially in the Baltic States. Probably the minimum year for traffic emissions is the base year of this study, 1992. In Estonia, emissions were halved compared with 1989. In Russia the decrease was not as big. After 1992, emissions started to rise rapidly because of the growth in transport demands and the increase in overall activity. The western vehicle fleet is growing rapidly. The specific emissions of western vehicles are clearly smaller than those of Russian vehicles. Total emissions have not decreased, however, owing to the rapid increase in mileage. Traffic emissions will also increase in the years to come.

AB - Exhaust gas emissions of traffic were examined in the areas of St.Petersburg, Leningrad Oblast, Republic of Karelia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The Following compounds were studied: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particles, sulphur dioxide (SO2), lead (Pb) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The traffic modes examined were road traffic, railway traffic, air traffic and waterway traffic. The emission calculations are based on mileage, cycles, fuel consumption and specific emissions. The base year of the calculations is 1992. This overall study of traffic emissions is the first of its kind in the area of the former Soviet Union. The author of this report has made a study of Estonian road traffic emissions in 1990. The city of St.Petersburg dominates in emissions, as was to be expected. The amount of emissions are quite well in proportion to population. Road traffic is by far the greatest emission source in total traffic emissions. Next are railway, waterway and air traffic. At the moment, reliable information on emissions from stationary sources is available only in Estonia. There the emission share of traffic is about 55 % of nitrogen oxide (NOx). For sulphur dioxide (SO2) the share of traffic is about 1 %. These shares have remained approximately unchanged since 1989. The year 1989 can be considered as a peak year in mileage and emissions in the area of the former Soviet Union. After that year, the political and economic changes significantly decreased the amount of mileage and emissions, especially in the Baltic States. Probably the minimum year for traffic emissions is the base year of this study, 1992. In Estonia, emissions were halved compared with 1989. In Russia the decrease was not as big. After 1992, emissions started to rise rapidly because of the growth in transport demands and the increase in overall activity. The western vehicle fleet is growing rapidly. The specific emissions of western vehicles are clearly smaller than those of Russian vehicles. Total emissions have not decreased, however, owing to the rapid increase in mileage. Traffic emissions will also increase in the years to come.

KW - vehicular traffic

KW - air traffic

KW - water traffic

KW - railroads

KW - exhaust emissions

KW - air pollution

KW - exhaust gases

KW - calculations

KW - transportation

KW - Russia

KW - Baltic States

KW - St.Petersburg

KW - Leningrad Oblast

KW - Republic of Karelia

KW - Estonia

KW - Latvia

KW - Lithuania

M3 - Report

SN - 951-38-4663-6

T3 - VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes

BT - Traffic emissions in Russia and the Baltic States

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Mäkelä K, Salo M. Traffic emissions in Russia and the Baltic States: St.Petersburg, Leningrad Oblast, Republic of Karelia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1994. 50 p. (VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes; No. 1569).