Tribological contact analysis of a rigid ball sliding on a hard coated surface. Part I

Modelling stresses and strains

Kenneth Holmberg (Corresponding Author), Anssi Laukkanen, Helena Ronkainen, Kim Wallin, Simo Varjus, Jari Koskinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

93 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The stress and fracture conditions of a coated surface, that are the origin to wear, were analysed by three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) modelling on microlevel, by stress and strain computer simulations and by experimental studies with a scratch tester. The studied tribological contact was a 0.2 mm radius diamond ball sliding with increasing load on a thin, 2 μm thick titanium nitride (TiN) coating on a flat high speed steel substrate. The ball was modelled as rigid, the coating linearly elastic and the steel substrate elastic–plastic taking into account strain hardening effects. The stresses and strains generated in the surface during sliding are the result of four different mechanisms: the pulling and pushing by the friction force; the geometrical indent, groove, and torus shaped deformations of the flat surface; the bulk plasticity concentration and curvature minimum effects; and the residual stresses in the coating. In a sliding contact the first crack is initiated at the top of the coating from bending and pulling actions and it grows down through the coating. In the modelled scratch tester system a complex stress field is formed at the surface including remaining residual stresses in the coating behind the sliding contact. The stress fields are very different in a scratched uncoated steel sample. Some residual tensile stresses are formed in the groove behind the tip but they are very much lower than for the TiN coated case. A displacement controlled FEM model was found to better represent the real situation and correspond to experimental results than a force controlled model.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3793-3809
Number of pages17
JournalSurface and Coatings Technology
Volume200
Issue number12-13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

sliding
balls
coatings
Coatings
Steel
residual stress
sliding contact
Residual stresses
Titanium nitride
titanium nitrides
pulling
steels
test equipment
grooves
stress distribution
finite element method
Finite element method
Diamond
pushing
strain hardening

Keywords

  • surface engineering
  • coatings
  • FEM modelling
  • stress simulation
  • fracture
  • scratch tester
  • ProperTune

Cite this

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title = "Tribological contact analysis of a rigid ball sliding on a hard coated surface. Part I: Modelling stresses and strains",
abstract = "The stress and fracture conditions of a coated surface, that are the origin to wear, were analysed by three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) modelling on microlevel, by stress and strain computer simulations and by experimental studies with a scratch tester. The studied tribological contact was a 0.2 mm radius diamond ball sliding with increasing load on a thin, 2 μm thick titanium nitride (TiN) coating on a flat high speed steel substrate. The ball was modelled as rigid, the coating linearly elastic and the steel substrate elastic–plastic taking into account strain hardening effects. The stresses and strains generated in the surface during sliding are the result of four different mechanisms: the pulling and pushing by the friction force; the geometrical indent, groove, and torus shaped deformations of the flat surface; the bulk plasticity concentration and curvature minimum effects; and the residual stresses in the coating. In a sliding contact the first crack is initiated at the top of the coating from bending and pulling actions and it grows down through the coating. In the modelled scratch tester system a complex stress field is formed at the surface including remaining residual stresses in the coating behind the sliding contact. The stress fields are very different in a scratched uncoated steel sample. Some residual tensile stresses are formed in the groove behind the tip but they are very much lower than for the TiN coated case. A displacement controlled FEM model was found to better represent the real situation and correspond to experimental results than a force controlled model.",
keywords = "surface engineering, coatings, FEM modelling, stress simulation, fracture, scratch tester, ProperTune",
author = "Kenneth Holmberg and Anssi Laukkanen and Helena Ronkainen and Kim Wallin and Simo Varjus and Jari Koskinen",
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Tribological contact analysis of a rigid ball sliding on a hard coated surface. Part I : Modelling stresses and strains. / Holmberg, Kenneth (Corresponding Author); Laukkanen, Anssi; Ronkainen, Helena; Wallin, Kim; Varjus, Simo; Koskinen, Jari.

In: Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 200, No. 12-13, 2006, p. 3793-3809.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Tribological contact analysis of a rigid ball sliding on a hard coated surface. Part I

T2 - Modelling stresses and strains

AU - Holmberg, Kenneth

AU - Laukkanen, Anssi

AU - Ronkainen, Helena

AU - Wallin, Kim

AU - Varjus, Simo

AU - Koskinen, Jari

PY - 2006

Y1 - 2006

N2 - The stress and fracture conditions of a coated surface, that are the origin to wear, were analysed by three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) modelling on microlevel, by stress and strain computer simulations and by experimental studies with a scratch tester. The studied tribological contact was a 0.2 mm radius diamond ball sliding with increasing load on a thin, 2 μm thick titanium nitride (TiN) coating on a flat high speed steel substrate. The ball was modelled as rigid, the coating linearly elastic and the steel substrate elastic–plastic taking into account strain hardening effects. The stresses and strains generated in the surface during sliding are the result of four different mechanisms: the pulling and pushing by the friction force; the geometrical indent, groove, and torus shaped deformations of the flat surface; the bulk plasticity concentration and curvature minimum effects; and the residual stresses in the coating. In a sliding contact the first crack is initiated at the top of the coating from bending and pulling actions and it grows down through the coating. In the modelled scratch tester system a complex stress field is formed at the surface including remaining residual stresses in the coating behind the sliding contact. The stress fields are very different in a scratched uncoated steel sample. Some residual tensile stresses are formed in the groove behind the tip but they are very much lower than for the TiN coated case. A displacement controlled FEM model was found to better represent the real situation and correspond to experimental results than a force controlled model.

AB - The stress and fracture conditions of a coated surface, that are the origin to wear, were analysed by three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) modelling on microlevel, by stress and strain computer simulations and by experimental studies with a scratch tester. The studied tribological contact was a 0.2 mm radius diamond ball sliding with increasing load on a thin, 2 μm thick titanium nitride (TiN) coating on a flat high speed steel substrate. The ball was modelled as rigid, the coating linearly elastic and the steel substrate elastic–plastic taking into account strain hardening effects. The stresses and strains generated in the surface during sliding are the result of four different mechanisms: the pulling and pushing by the friction force; the geometrical indent, groove, and torus shaped deformations of the flat surface; the bulk plasticity concentration and curvature minimum effects; and the residual stresses in the coating. In a sliding contact the first crack is initiated at the top of the coating from bending and pulling actions and it grows down through the coating. In the modelled scratch tester system a complex stress field is formed at the surface including remaining residual stresses in the coating behind the sliding contact. The stress fields are very different in a scratched uncoated steel sample. Some residual tensile stresses are formed in the groove behind the tip but they are very much lower than for the TiN coated case. A displacement controlled FEM model was found to better represent the real situation and correspond to experimental results than a force controlled model.

KW - surface engineering

KW - coatings

KW - FEM modelling

KW - stress simulation

KW - fracture

KW - scratch tester

KW - ProperTune

U2 - 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.03.040

DO - 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.03.040

M3 - Article

VL - 200

SP - 3793

EP - 3809

JO - Surface and Coatings Technology

JF - Surface and Coatings Technology

SN - 0257-8972

IS - 12-13

ER -