Tribological contact analysis of a rigid ball sliding on a hard coated surface. Part I: Modelling stresses and strains

Kenneth Holmberg (Corresponding Author), Anssi Laukkanen, Helena Ronkainen, Kim Wallin, Simo Varjus, Jari Koskinen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    100 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The stress and fracture conditions of a coated surface, that are the origin to wear, were analysed by three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) modelling on microlevel, by stress and strain computer simulations and by experimental studies with a scratch tester. The studied tribological contact was a 0.2 mm radius diamond ball sliding with increasing load on a thin, 2 μm thick titanium nitride (TiN) coating on a flat high speed steel substrate. The ball was modelled as rigid, the coating linearly elastic and the steel substrate elastic–plastic taking into account strain hardening effects. The stresses and strains generated in the surface during sliding are the result of four different mechanisms: the pulling and pushing by the friction force; the geometrical indent, groove, and torus shaped deformations of the flat surface; the bulk plasticity concentration and curvature minimum effects; and the residual stresses in the coating. In a sliding contact the first crack is initiated at the top of the coating from bending and pulling actions and it grows down through the coating. In the modelled scratch tester system a complex stress field is formed at the surface including remaining residual stresses in the coating behind the sliding contact. The stress fields are very different in a scratched uncoated steel sample. Some residual tensile stresses are formed in the groove behind the tip but they are very much lower than for the TiN coated case. A displacement controlled FEM model was found to better represent the real situation and correspond to experimental results than a force controlled model.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)3793-3809
    Number of pages17
    JournalSurface and Coatings Technology
    Volume200
    Issue number12-13
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2006
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    sliding
    balls
    coatings
    Coatings
    Steel
    residual stress
    sliding contact
    Residual stresses
    Titanium nitride
    titanium nitrides
    pulling
    steels
    test equipment
    grooves
    stress distribution
    finite element method
    Finite element method
    Diamond
    pushing
    strain hardening

    Keywords

    • surface engineering
    • coatings
    • FEM modelling
    • stress simulation
    • fracture
    • scratch tester
    • ProperTune

    Cite this

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    abstract = "The stress and fracture conditions of a coated surface, that are the origin to wear, were analysed by three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) modelling on microlevel, by stress and strain computer simulations and by experimental studies with a scratch tester. The studied tribological contact was a 0.2 mm radius diamond ball sliding with increasing load on a thin, 2 μm thick titanium nitride (TiN) coating on a flat high speed steel substrate. The ball was modelled as rigid, the coating linearly elastic and the steel substrate elastic–plastic taking into account strain hardening effects. The stresses and strains generated in the surface during sliding are the result of four different mechanisms: the pulling and pushing by the friction force; the geometrical indent, groove, and torus shaped deformations of the flat surface; the bulk plasticity concentration and curvature minimum effects; and the residual stresses in the coating. In a sliding contact the first crack is initiated at the top of the coating from bending and pulling actions and it grows down through the coating. In the modelled scratch tester system a complex stress field is formed at the surface including remaining residual stresses in the coating behind the sliding contact. The stress fields are very different in a scratched uncoated steel sample. Some residual tensile stresses are formed in the groove behind the tip but they are very much lower than for the TiN coated case. A displacement controlled FEM model was found to better represent the real situation and correspond to experimental results than a force controlled model.",
    keywords = "surface engineering, coatings, FEM modelling, stress simulation, fracture, scratch tester, ProperTune",
    author = "Kenneth Holmberg and Anssi Laukkanen and Helena Ronkainen and Kim Wallin and Simo Varjus and Jari Koskinen",
    year = "2006",
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    language = "English",
    volume = "200",
    pages = "3793--3809",
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    }

    Tribological contact analysis of a rigid ball sliding on a hard coated surface. Part I : Modelling stresses and strains. / Holmberg, Kenneth (Corresponding Author); Laukkanen, Anssi; Ronkainen, Helena; Wallin, Kim; Varjus, Simo; Koskinen, Jari.

    In: Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 200, No. 12-13, 2006, p. 3793-3809.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Tribological contact analysis of a rigid ball sliding on a hard coated surface. Part I

    T2 - Modelling stresses and strains

    AU - Holmberg, Kenneth

    AU - Laukkanen, Anssi

    AU - Ronkainen, Helena

    AU - Wallin, Kim

    AU - Varjus, Simo

    AU - Koskinen, Jari

    PY - 2006

    Y1 - 2006

    N2 - The stress and fracture conditions of a coated surface, that are the origin to wear, were analysed by three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) modelling on microlevel, by stress and strain computer simulations and by experimental studies with a scratch tester. The studied tribological contact was a 0.2 mm radius diamond ball sliding with increasing load on a thin, 2 μm thick titanium nitride (TiN) coating on a flat high speed steel substrate. The ball was modelled as rigid, the coating linearly elastic and the steel substrate elastic–plastic taking into account strain hardening effects. The stresses and strains generated in the surface during sliding are the result of four different mechanisms: the pulling and pushing by the friction force; the geometrical indent, groove, and torus shaped deformations of the flat surface; the bulk plasticity concentration and curvature minimum effects; and the residual stresses in the coating. In a sliding contact the first crack is initiated at the top of the coating from bending and pulling actions and it grows down through the coating. In the modelled scratch tester system a complex stress field is formed at the surface including remaining residual stresses in the coating behind the sliding contact. The stress fields are very different in a scratched uncoated steel sample. Some residual tensile stresses are formed in the groove behind the tip but they are very much lower than for the TiN coated case. A displacement controlled FEM model was found to better represent the real situation and correspond to experimental results than a force controlled model.

    AB - The stress and fracture conditions of a coated surface, that are the origin to wear, were analysed by three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) modelling on microlevel, by stress and strain computer simulations and by experimental studies with a scratch tester. The studied tribological contact was a 0.2 mm radius diamond ball sliding with increasing load on a thin, 2 μm thick titanium nitride (TiN) coating on a flat high speed steel substrate. The ball was modelled as rigid, the coating linearly elastic and the steel substrate elastic–plastic taking into account strain hardening effects. The stresses and strains generated in the surface during sliding are the result of four different mechanisms: the pulling and pushing by the friction force; the geometrical indent, groove, and torus shaped deformations of the flat surface; the bulk plasticity concentration and curvature minimum effects; and the residual stresses in the coating. In a sliding contact the first crack is initiated at the top of the coating from bending and pulling actions and it grows down through the coating. In the modelled scratch tester system a complex stress field is formed at the surface including remaining residual stresses in the coating behind the sliding contact. The stress fields are very different in a scratched uncoated steel sample. Some residual tensile stresses are formed in the groove behind the tip but they are very much lower than for the TiN coated case. A displacement controlled FEM model was found to better represent the real situation and correspond to experimental results than a force controlled model.

    KW - surface engineering

    KW - coatings

    KW - FEM modelling

    KW - stress simulation

    KW - fracture

    KW - scratch tester

    KW - ProperTune

    U2 - 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.03.040

    DO - 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.03.040

    M3 - Article

    VL - 200

    SP - 3793

    EP - 3809

    JO - Surface and Coatings Technology

    JF - Surface and Coatings Technology

    SN - 0257-8972

    IS - 12-13

    ER -