Tribological contact analysis of a rigid ball sliding on a hard coated surface: Part II: Material deformations, influence of coating thickness and Young's modulus

Kenneth Holmberg (Corresponding Author), Anssi Laukkanen, Helena Ronkainen, Kim Wallin, Simo Varjus, Jari Koskinen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    78 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Material deformations and the influence of coating thickness and elastic modulus were analysed by three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) modelling on microlevel, by stress, strain, and displacement computer simulations and by experimental studies with a scratch tester. The studied tribological contact was a diamond ball sliding with increasing load on a thin titanium nitride (TiN) coating on a flat steel substrate. The ball was modelled as rigid, the coating was linearly elastic, and the steel substrate was elastic–plastic, taking into account strain hardening effects. It was shown that a thin TiN ceramic coating on a steel substrate has only a very slight effect on friction and on the plastic deformations (i.e., the groove formation) in the surface, but changes considerably the stress pattern at the surface. The stress simulations showed how a thicker hard coating on a soft substrate has a better load-carrying capacity that a thinner one. Higher tensile stresses at the coating/substrate interface increase the risk for interface cracks and delamination of the thicker coating. A stiffer hard coating on a soft substrate has a better load-carrying capacity than a more elastic one. The stiffer coating will accommodate higher tensile stresses with the same indentation depth compared to a more elastic one. The results show that much more attention should be given to optimizing the elastic properties of the coating than previously has been done. In many cases, it can be much more effective to improve the wear resistance of the coated surface by focusing on the elastic modulus of the coating than changing the coating thickness.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)3810-3823
    Number of pages14
    JournalSurface and Coatings Technology
    Volume200
    Issue number12-13
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2006
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    sliding
    balls
    modulus of elasticity
    Elastic moduli
    coatings
    Coatings
    Steel
    Substrates
    Hard coatings
    Titanium nitride
    load carrying capacity
    Load limits
    Tensile stress
    titanium nitrides
    steels
    tensile stress
    Diamond
    Ceramic coatings
    ceramic coatings
    Indentation

    Keywords

    • surface coatings
    • FEM modelling
    • deformations
    • scratch tester
    • coating thickness
    • Young's modulus
    • ProperTune

    Cite this

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    abstract = "Material deformations and the influence of coating thickness and elastic modulus were analysed by three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) modelling on microlevel, by stress, strain, and displacement computer simulations and by experimental studies with a scratch tester. The studied tribological contact was a diamond ball sliding with increasing load on a thin titanium nitride (TiN) coating on a flat steel substrate. The ball was modelled as rigid, the coating was linearly elastic, and the steel substrate was elastic–plastic, taking into account strain hardening effects. It was shown that a thin TiN ceramic coating on a steel substrate has only a very slight effect on friction and on the plastic deformations (i.e., the groove formation) in the surface, but changes considerably the stress pattern at the surface. The stress simulations showed how a thicker hard coating on a soft substrate has a better load-carrying capacity that a thinner one. Higher tensile stresses at the coating/substrate interface increase the risk for interface cracks and delamination of the thicker coating. A stiffer hard coating on a soft substrate has a better load-carrying capacity than a more elastic one. The stiffer coating will accommodate higher tensile stresses with the same indentation depth compared to a more elastic one. The results show that much more attention should be given to optimizing the elastic properties of the coating than previously has been done. In many cases, it can be much more effective to improve the wear resistance of the coated surface by focusing on the elastic modulus of the coating than changing the coating thickness.",
    keywords = "surface coatings, FEM modelling, deformations, scratch tester, coating thickness, Young's modulus, ProperTune",
    author = "Kenneth Holmberg and Anssi Laukkanen and Helena Ronkainen and Kim Wallin and Simo Varjus and Jari Koskinen",
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    Tribological contact analysis of a rigid ball sliding on a hard coated surface : Part II: Material deformations, influence of coating thickness and Young's modulus. / Holmberg, Kenneth (Corresponding Author); Laukkanen, Anssi; Ronkainen, Helena; Wallin, Kim; Varjus, Simo; Koskinen, Jari.

    In: Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 200, No. 12-13, 2006, p. 3810-3823.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Tribological contact analysis of a rigid ball sliding on a hard coated surface

    T2 - Part II: Material deformations, influence of coating thickness and Young's modulus

    AU - Holmberg, Kenneth

    AU - Laukkanen, Anssi

    AU - Ronkainen, Helena

    AU - Wallin, Kim

    AU - Varjus, Simo

    AU - Koskinen, Jari

    PY - 2006

    Y1 - 2006

    N2 - Material deformations and the influence of coating thickness and elastic modulus were analysed by three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) modelling on microlevel, by stress, strain, and displacement computer simulations and by experimental studies with a scratch tester. The studied tribological contact was a diamond ball sliding with increasing load on a thin titanium nitride (TiN) coating on a flat steel substrate. The ball was modelled as rigid, the coating was linearly elastic, and the steel substrate was elastic–plastic, taking into account strain hardening effects. It was shown that a thin TiN ceramic coating on a steel substrate has only a very slight effect on friction and on the plastic deformations (i.e., the groove formation) in the surface, but changes considerably the stress pattern at the surface. The stress simulations showed how a thicker hard coating on a soft substrate has a better load-carrying capacity that a thinner one. Higher tensile stresses at the coating/substrate interface increase the risk for interface cracks and delamination of the thicker coating. A stiffer hard coating on a soft substrate has a better load-carrying capacity than a more elastic one. The stiffer coating will accommodate higher tensile stresses with the same indentation depth compared to a more elastic one. The results show that much more attention should be given to optimizing the elastic properties of the coating than previously has been done. In many cases, it can be much more effective to improve the wear resistance of the coated surface by focusing on the elastic modulus of the coating than changing the coating thickness.

    AB - Material deformations and the influence of coating thickness and elastic modulus were analysed by three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) modelling on microlevel, by stress, strain, and displacement computer simulations and by experimental studies with a scratch tester. The studied tribological contact was a diamond ball sliding with increasing load on a thin titanium nitride (TiN) coating on a flat steel substrate. The ball was modelled as rigid, the coating was linearly elastic, and the steel substrate was elastic–plastic, taking into account strain hardening effects. It was shown that a thin TiN ceramic coating on a steel substrate has only a very slight effect on friction and on the plastic deformations (i.e., the groove formation) in the surface, but changes considerably the stress pattern at the surface. The stress simulations showed how a thicker hard coating on a soft substrate has a better load-carrying capacity that a thinner one. Higher tensile stresses at the coating/substrate interface increase the risk for interface cracks and delamination of the thicker coating. A stiffer hard coating on a soft substrate has a better load-carrying capacity than a more elastic one. The stiffer coating will accommodate higher tensile stresses with the same indentation depth compared to a more elastic one. The results show that much more attention should be given to optimizing the elastic properties of the coating than previously has been done. In many cases, it can be much more effective to improve the wear resistance of the coated surface by focusing on the elastic modulus of the coating than changing the coating thickness.

    KW - surface coatings

    KW - FEM modelling

    KW - deformations

    KW - scratch tester

    KW - coating thickness

    KW - Young's modulus

    KW - ProperTune

    U2 - 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.03.041

    DO - 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.03.041

    M3 - Article

    VL - 200

    SP - 3810

    EP - 3823

    JO - Surface and Coatings Technology

    JF - Surface and Coatings Technology

    SN - 0257-8972

    IS - 12-13

    ER -