Tungsten and beryllium armour development for the JET ITER-like wall project

H. Maier (Corresponding Author), T. Hirai, M. Rubel, R. Neu, Ph. Mertens, H. Greuner, Ch. Hopf, G.F. Matthews, O. Neubauer, G. Piazza, E. Gauthier, Jari Likonen, R. Mitteau, G. Maddaluno, B. Riccardi, V. Philipps, C. Ruset, C.P. Lungu, I. Uytdenhouwen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

For the ITER-like wall project at JET the present main chamber CFC tiles will be exchanged with Be tiles and in parallel a fully tungsten-clad divertor will be prepared. Therefore three R&D programmes were initiated: Be coatings on Inconel as well as Be erosion markers were developed for the first wall of the main chamber. High heat flux screening and cyclic loading tests carried out on the Be coatings on Inconel showed excellent performance, above the required power and energy density. For the divertor a conceptual design for a bulk W horizontal target plate was investigated, with the emphasis on minimizing electromagnetic forces. The design consisted of stacks of W lamellae of 6 mm width that were insulated in the toroidal direction. High heat flux tests of a test module were performed with an electron beam at an absorbed power density up to 9 MW m−2 for more than 150 pulses and finally with increasing power loads leading to surface temperatures in excess of 3000 °C. No macroscopic failure occurred during the test while SEM showed the development of micro-cracks on the loaded surface. For all other divertor parts R&D was performed to provide the technology to coat the 2-directional CFC material used at JET with thin tungsten coatings. The W-coated CFC tiles were subjected to heat loads with power densities ranging up to 23.5 MW m−2 and exposed to cyclic heat loading for 200 pulses at 10.5 MW m−2. All coatings developed cracks perpendicular to the CFC fibres due to the stronger contraction of the coating upon cool-down after the heat pulses.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)222-227
JournalNuclear Fusion
Volume47
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

armor
beryllium
chlorofluorocarbons
tungsten
tiles
coatings
radiant flux density
Inconel (trademark)
heat
heat flux
cracks
chambers
pulses
lamella
markers
surface temperature
contraction
erosion
screening
flux density

Keywords

  • JET
  • plasma
  • fusion energy
  • fusion reactors
  • ITER
  • tungsten
  • beryllium
  • divertor
  • divertor material
  • divertor plasma

Cite this

Maier, H., Hirai, T., Rubel, M., Neu, R., Mertens, P., Greuner, H., ... Uytdenhouwen, I. (2007). Tungsten and beryllium armour development for the JET ITER-like wall project. Nuclear Fusion, 47(3), 222-227. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/47/3/009
Maier, H. ; Hirai, T. ; Rubel, M. ; Neu, R. ; Mertens, Ph. ; Greuner, H. ; Hopf, Ch. ; Matthews, G.F. ; Neubauer, O. ; Piazza, G. ; Gauthier, E. ; Likonen, Jari ; Mitteau, R. ; Maddaluno, G. ; Riccardi, B. ; Philipps, V. ; Ruset, C. ; Lungu, C.P. ; Uytdenhouwen, I. / Tungsten and beryllium armour development for the JET ITER-like wall project. In: Nuclear Fusion. 2007 ; Vol. 47, No. 3. pp. 222-227.
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abstract = "For the ITER-like wall project at JET the present main chamber CFC tiles will be exchanged with Be tiles and in parallel a fully tungsten-clad divertor will be prepared. Therefore three R&D programmes were initiated: Be coatings on Inconel as well as Be erosion markers were developed for the first wall of the main chamber. High heat flux screening and cyclic loading tests carried out on the Be coatings on Inconel showed excellent performance, above the required power and energy density. For the divertor a conceptual design for a bulk W horizontal target plate was investigated, with the emphasis on minimizing electromagnetic forces. The design consisted of stacks of W lamellae of 6 mm width that were insulated in the toroidal direction. High heat flux tests of a test module were performed with an electron beam at an absorbed power density up to 9 MW m−2 for more than 150 pulses and finally with increasing power loads leading to surface temperatures in excess of 3000 °C. No macroscopic failure occurred during the test while SEM showed the development of micro-cracks on the loaded surface. For all other divertor parts R&D was performed to provide the technology to coat the 2-directional CFC material used at JET with thin tungsten coatings. The W-coated CFC tiles were subjected to heat loads with power densities ranging up to 23.5 MW m−2 and exposed to cyclic heat loading for 200 pulses at 10.5 MW m−2. All coatings developed cracks perpendicular to the CFC fibres due to the stronger contraction of the coating upon cool-down after the heat pulses.",
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Maier, H, Hirai, T, Rubel, M, Neu, R, Mertens, P, Greuner, H, Hopf, C, Matthews, GF, Neubauer, O, Piazza, G, Gauthier, E, Likonen, J, Mitteau, R, Maddaluno, G, Riccardi, B, Philipps, V, Ruset, C, Lungu, CP & Uytdenhouwen, I 2007, 'Tungsten and beryllium armour development for the JET ITER-like wall project', Nuclear Fusion, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 222-227. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/47/3/009

Tungsten and beryllium armour development for the JET ITER-like wall project. / Maier, H. (Corresponding Author); Hirai, T.; Rubel, M.; Neu, R.; Mertens, Ph.; Greuner, H.; Hopf, Ch.; Matthews, G.F.; Neubauer, O.; Piazza, G.; Gauthier, E.; Likonen, Jari; Mitteau, R.; Maddaluno, G.; Riccardi, B.; Philipps, V.; Ruset, C.; Lungu, C.P.; Uytdenhouwen, I.

In: Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 47, No. 3, 2007, p. 222-227.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Tungsten and beryllium armour development for the JET ITER-like wall project

AU - Maier, H.

AU - Hirai, T.

AU - Rubel, M.

AU - Neu, R.

AU - Mertens, Ph.

AU - Greuner, H.

AU - Hopf, Ch.

AU - Matthews, G.F.

AU - Neubauer, O.

AU - Piazza, G.

AU - Gauthier, E.

AU - Likonen, Jari

AU - Mitteau, R.

AU - Maddaluno, G.

AU - Riccardi, B.

AU - Philipps, V.

AU - Ruset, C.

AU - Lungu, C.P.

AU - Uytdenhouwen, I.

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - For the ITER-like wall project at JET the present main chamber CFC tiles will be exchanged with Be tiles and in parallel a fully tungsten-clad divertor will be prepared. Therefore three R&D programmes were initiated: Be coatings on Inconel as well as Be erosion markers were developed for the first wall of the main chamber. High heat flux screening and cyclic loading tests carried out on the Be coatings on Inconel showed excellent performance, above the required power and energy density. For the divertor a conceptual design for a bulk W horizontal target plate was investigated, with the emphasis on minimizing electromagnetic forces. The design consisted of stacks of W lamellae of 6 mm width that were insulated in the toroidal direction. High heat flux tests of a test module were performed with an electron beam at an absorbed power density up to 9 MW m−2 for more than 150 pulses and finally with increasing power loads leading to surface temperatures in excess of 3000 °C. No macroscopic failure occurred during the test while SEM showed the development of micro-cracks on the loaded surface. For all other divertor parts R&D was performed to provide the technology to coat the 2-directional CFC material used at JET with thin tungsten coatings. The W-coated CFC tiles were subjected to heat loads with power densities ranging up to 23.5 MW m−2 and exposed to cyclic heat loading for 200 pulses at 10.5 MW m−2. All coatings developed cracks perpendicular to the CFC fibres due to the stronger contraction of the coating upon cool-down after the heat pulses.

AB - For the ITER-like wall project at JET the present main chamber CFC tiles will be exchanged with Be tiles and in parallel a fully tungsten-clad divertor will be prepared. Therefore three R&D programmes were initiated: Be coatings on Inconel as well as Be erosion markers were developed for the first wall of the main chamber. High heat flux screening and cyclic loading tests carried out on the Be coatings on Inconel showed excellent performance, above the required power and energy density. For the divertor a conceptual design for a bulk W horizontal target plate was investigated, with the emphasis on minimizing electromagnetic forces. The design consisted of stacks of W lamellae of 6 mm width that were insulated in the toroidal direction. High heat flux tests of a test module were performed with an electron beam at an absorbed power density up to 9 MW m−2 for more than 150 pulses and finally with increasing power loads leading to surface temperatures in excess of 3000 °C. No macroscopic failure occurred during the test while SEM showed the development of micro-cracks on the loaded surface. For all other divertor parts R&D was performed to provide the technology to coat the 2-directional CFC material used at JET with thin tungsten coatings. The W-coated CFC tiles were subjected to heat loads with power densities ranging up to 23.5 MW m−2 and exposed to cyclic heat loading for 200 pulses at 10.5 MW m−2. All coatings developed cracks perpendicular to the CFC fibres due to the stronger contraction of the coating upon cool-down after the heat pulses.

KW - JET

KW - plasma

KW - fusion energy

KW - fusion reactors

KW - ITER

KW - tungsten

KW - beryllium

KW - divertor

KW - divertor material

KW - divertor plasma

U2 - 10.1088/0029-5515/47/3/009

DO - 10.1088/0029-5515/47/3/009

M3 - Article

VL - 47

SP - 222

EP - 227

JO - Nuclear Fusion

JF - Nuclear Fusion

SN - 0029-5515

IS - 3

ER -