For the ITER-like wall project at JET the present main chamber CFC tiles will be exchanged with Be tiles and in parallel a fully tungsten-clad divertor will be prepared.
Therefore three R&D programmes were initiated: Be coatings on Inconel as well as Be erosion markers were developed for the first wall of the main chamber. High heat flux screening and cyclic loading tests carried out on the Be coatings on Inconel showed excellent performance, above the required power and energy density.
For the divertor a conceptual design for a bulk W horizontal target plate was investigated, with the emphasis on minimizing electromagnetic forces. The design consisted of stacks of W lamellae of 6 mm width that were insulated in the toroidal direction.
High heat flux tests of a test module were performed with an electron beam at an absorbed power density up to 9 MW m−2 for more than 150 pulses and finally with increasing power loads leading to surface temperatures in excess of 3000 °C.
No macroscopic failure occurred during the test while SEM showed the development of micro-cracks on the loaded surface. For all other divertor parts R&D was performed to provide the technology to coat the 2-directional CFC material used at JET with thin tungsten coatings.
The W-coated CFC tiles were subjected to heat loads with power densities ranging up to 23.5 MW m−2 and exposed to cyclic heat loading for 200 pulses at 10.5 MW m−2.
All coatings developed cracks perpendicular to the CFC fibres due to the stronger contraction of the coating upon cool-down after the heat pulses.
- fusion energy
- fusion reactors
- divertor material
- divertor plasma