Tungsten and beryllium armour development for the JET ITER-like wall project

H. Maier (Corresponding Author), T. Hirai, M. Rubel, R. Neu, Ph. Mertens, H. Greuner, Ch. Hopf, G.F. Matthews, O. Neubauer, G. Piazza, E. Gauthier, Jari Likonen, R. Mitteau, G. Maddaluno, B. Riccardi, V. Philipps, C. Ruset, C.P. Lungu, I. Uytdenhouwen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    24 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    For the ITER-like wall project at JET the present main chamber CFC tiles will be exchanged with Be tiles and in parallel a fully tungsten-clad divertor will be prepared. Therefore three R&D programmes were initiated: Be coatings on Inconel as well as Be erosion markers were developed for the first wall of the main chamber. High heat flux screening and cyclic loading tests carried out on the Be coatings on Inconel showed excellent performance, above the required power and energy density. For the divertor a conceptual design for a bulk W horizontal target plate was investigated, with the emphasis on minimizing electromagnetic forces. The design consisted of stacks of W lamellae of 6 mm width that were insulated in the toroidal direction. High heat flux tests of a test module were performed with an electron beam at an absorbed power density up to 9 MW m−2 for more than 150 pulses and finally with increasing power loads leading to surface temperatures in excess of 3000 °C. No macroscopic failure occurred during the test while SEM showed the development of micro-cracks on the loaded surface. For all other divertor parts R&D was performed to provide the technology to coat the 2-directional CFC material used at JET with thin tungsten coatings. The W-coated CFC tiles were subjected to heat loads with power densities ranging up to 23.5 MW m−2 and exposed to cyclic heat loading for 200 pulses at 10.5 MW m−2. All coatings developed cracks perpendicular to the CFC fibres due to the stronger contraction of the coating upon cool-down after the heat pulses.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)222-227
    JournalNuclear Fusion
    Volume47
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2007
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    armor
    beryllium
    chlorofluorocarbons
    tungsten
    tiles
    coatings
    radiant flux density
    Inconel (trademark)
    heat
    heat flux
    cracks
    chambers
    pulses
    lamella
    markers
    surface temperature
    contraction
    erosion
    screening
    flux density

    Keywords

    • JET
    • plasma
    • fusion energy
    • fusion reactors
    • ITER
    • tungsten
    • beryllium
    • divertor
    • divertor material
    • divertor plasma

    Cite this

    Maier, H., Hirai, T., Rubel, M., Neu, R., Mertens, P., Greuner, H., ... Uytdenhouwen, I. (2007). Tungsten and beryllium armour development for the JET ITER-like wall project. Nuclear Fusion, 47(3), 222-227. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/47/3/009
    Maier, H. ; Hirai, T. ; Rubel, M. ; Neu, R. ; Mertens, Ph. ; Greuner, H. ; Hopf, Ch. ; Matthews, G.F. ; Neubauer, O. ; Piazza, G. ; Gauthier, E. ; Likonen, Jari ; Mitteau, R. ; Maddaluno, G. ; Riccardi, B. ; Philipps, V. ; Ruset, C. ; Lungu, C.P. ; Uytdenhouwen, I. / Tungsten and beryllium armour development for the JET ITER-like wall project. In: Nuclear Fusion. 2007 ; Vol. 47, No. 3. pp. 222-227.
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    abstract = "For the ITER-like wall project at JET the present main chamber CFC tiles will be exchanged with Be tiles and in parallel a fully tungsten-clad divertor will be prepared. Therefore three R&D programmes were initiated: Be coatings on Inconel as well as Be erosion markers were developed for the first wall of the main chamber. High heat flux screening and cyclic loading tests carried out on the Be coatings on Inconel showed excellent performance, above the required power and energy density. For the divertor a conceptual design for a bulk W horizontal target plate was investigated, with the emphasis on minimizing electromagnetic forces. The design consisted of stacks of W lamellae of 6 mm width that were insulated in the toroidal direction. High heat flux tests of a test module were performed with an electron beam at an absorbed power density up to 9 MW m−2 for more than 150 pulses and finally with increasing power loads leading to surface temperatures in excess of 3000 °C. No macroscopic failure occurred during the test while SEM showed the development of micro-cracks on the loaded surface. For all other divertor parts R&D was performed to provide the technology to coat the 2-directional CFC material used at JET with thin tungsten coatings. The W-coated CFC tiles were subjected to heat loads with power densities ranging up to 23.5 MW m−2 and exposed to cyclic heat loading for 200 pulses at 10.5 MW m−2. All coatings developed cracks perpendicular to the CFC fibres due to the stronger contraction of the coating upon cool-down after the heat pulses.",
    keywords = "JET, plasma, fusion energy, fusion reactors, ITER, tungsten, beryllium, divertor, divertor material, divertor plasma",
    author = "H. Maier and T. Hirai and M. Rubel and R. Neu and Ph. Mertens and H. Greuner and Ch. Hopf and G.F. Matthews and O. Neubauer and G. Piazza and E. Gauthier and Jari Likonen and R. Mitteau and G. Maddaluno and B. Riccardi and V. Philipps and C. Ruset and C.P. Lungu and I. Uytdenhouwen",
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    Maier, H, Hirai, T, Rubel, M, Neu, R, Mertens, P, Greuner, H, Hopf, C, Matthews, GF, Neubauer, O, Piazza, G, Gauthier, E, Likonen, J, Mitteau, R, Maddaluno, G, Riccardi, B, Philipps, V, Ruset, C, Lungu, CP & Uytdenhouwen, I 2007, 'Tungsten and beryllium armour development for the JET ITER-like wall project', Nuclear Fusion, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 222-227. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/47/3/009

    Tungsten and beryllium armour development for the JET ITER-like wall project. / Maier, H. (Corresponding Author); Hirai, T.; Rubel, M.; Neu, R.; Mertens, Ph.; Greuner, H.; Hopf, Ch.; Matthews, G.F.; Neubauer, O.; Piazza, G.; Gauthier, E.; Likonen, Jari; Mitteau, R.; Maddaluno, G.; Riccardi, B.; Philipps, V.; Ruset, C.; Lungu, C.P.; Uytdenhouwen, I.

    In: Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 47, No. 3, 2007, p. 222-227.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Tungsten and beryllium armour development for the JET ITER-like wall project

    AU - Maier, H.

    AU - Hirai, T.

    AU - Rubel, M.

    AU - Neu, R.

    AU - Mertens, Ph.

    AU - Greuner, H.

    AU - Hopf, Ch.

    AU - Matthews, G.F.

    AU - Neubauer, O.

    AU - Piazza, G.

    AU - Gauthier, E.

    AU - Likonen, Jari

    AU - Mitteau, R.

    AU - Maddaluno, G.

    AU - Riccardi, B.

    AU - Philipps, V.

    AU - Ruset, C.

    AU - Lungu, C.P.

    AU - Uytdenhouwen, I.

    PY - 2007

    Y1 - 2007

    N2 - For the ITER-like wall project at JET the present main chamber CFC tiles will be exchanged with Be tiles and in parallel a fully tungsten-clad divertor will be prepared. Therefore three R&D programmes were initiated: Be coatings on Inconel as well as Be erosion markers were developed for the first wall of the main chamber. High heat flux screening and cyclic loading tests carried out on the Be coatings on Inconel showed excellent performance, above the required power and energy density. For the divertor a conceptual design for a bulk W horizontal target plate was investigated, with the emphasis on minimizing electromagnetic forces. The design consisted of stacks of W lamellae of 6 mm width that were insulated in the toroidal direction. High heat flux tests of a test module were performed with an electron beam at an absorbed power density up to 9 MW m−2 for more than 150 pulses and finally with increasing power loads leading to surface temperatures in excess of 3000 °C. No macroscopic failure occurred during the test while SEM showed the development of micro-cracks on the loaded surface. For all other divertor parts R&D was performed to provide the technology to coat the 2-directional CFC material used at JET with thin tungsten coatings. The W-coated CFC tiles were subjected to heat loads with power densities ranging up to 23.5 MW m−2 and exposed to cyclic heat loading for 200 pulses at 10.5 MW m−2. All coatings developed cracks perpendicular to the CFC fibres due to the stronger contraction of the coating upon cool-down after the heat pulses.

    AB - For the ITER-like wall project at JET the present main chamber CFC tiles will be exchanged with Be tiles and in parallel a fully tungsten-clad divertor will be prepared. Therefore three R&D programmes were initiated: Be coatings on Inconel as well as Be erosion markers were developed for the first wall of the main chamber. High heat flux screening and cyclic loading tests carried out on the Be coatings on Inconel showed excellent performance, above the required power and energy density. For the divertor a conceptual design for a bulk W horizontal target plate was investigated, with the emphasis on minimizing electromagnetic forces. The design consisted of stacks of W lamellae of 6 mm width that were insulated in the toroidal direction. High heat flux tests of a test module were performed with an electron beam at an absorbed power density up to 9 MW m−2 for more than 150 pulses and finally with increasing power loads leading to surface temperatures in excess of 3000 °C. No macroscopic failure occurred during the test while SEM showed the development of micro-cracks on the loaded surface. For all other divertor parts R&D was performed to provide the technology to coat the 2-directional CFC material used at JET with thin tungsten coatings. The W-coated CFC tiles were subjected to heat loads with power densities ranging up to 23.5 MW m−2 and exposed to cyclic heat loading for 200 pulses at 10.5 MW m−2. All coatings developed cracks perpendicular to the CFC fibres due to the stronger contraction of the coating upon cool-down after the heat pulses.

    KW - JET

    KW - plasma

    KW - fusion energy

    KW - fusion reactors

    KW - ITER

    KW - tungsten

    KW - beryllium

    KW - divertor

    KW - divertor material

    KW - divertor plasma

    U2 - 10.1088/0029-5515/47/3/009

    DO - 10.1088/0029-5515/47/3/009

    M3 - Article

    VL - 47

    SP - 222

    EP - 227

    JO - Nuclear Fusion

    JF - Nuclear Fusion

    SN - 0029-5515

    IS - 3

    ER -