Two alternative process routes for recovering pure indium from waste liquid crystal display panels

Sami Virolainen (Corresponding Author), Tommi Huhtanen, Antero Laitinen, Tuomo Sainio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Recovering indium from liquid crystal display (LCD) screen waste is important from a sustainability point of view for several reasons: the environmentally hazardous metals are not landfilled, the recovery process involves lower CO2 emissions than primary production, and supply from secondary sources matches the continuously increasing demand of indium. In this study, two alternative process routes for recycling the critical metal, indium, from LCD panel waste were studied and compared using laboratory and bench-scale experiments. The first process was a conventional hydrometallurgical process that involves manual dismantling, hammer mill crushing of the glass, cross-current sulfuric acid leaching of the metals, and liquid-liquid extraction separation of indium. Using this process, over 99% pure indium solution can be produced with a recovery yield of over 70%. The second process is novel because it includes (manual) scraping of the indium tin oxide (ITO) layer from the glass panels, followed by sulfuric acid leaching of the metals. The yield of indium was over 80%, and the purity of the resulting solution was over 99%. The solutions obtained from either of the suggested processes were sufficiently pure for cementing indium in high purity. The novel process appears much more straightforward and economically more feasible because the polarizing filter need not be removed and the liquid-liquid extraction purification step is excluded. Moreover, less amount of leaching acid is required.

Original languageEnglish
Article number118599
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Volume243
Early online date25 Sep 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jan 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

indium
Liquid crystal displays
Indium
crystal
liquid
Leaching
metal
leaching
Liquids
Metals
Sulfuric acid
sulfuric acid
glass
Recovery
Glass
liquid waste
Hammers
Crushing
crushing
Tin oxides

Keywords

  • Bench-scale
  • Hydrometallurgy
  • Indium
  • Indium tin oxide (ITO)
  • LCD panels
  • Physical separation

Cite this

@article{a5f65c05e5714e0eb4066d3e4ffc771e,
title = "Two alternative process routes for recovering pure indium from waste liquid crystal display panels",
abstract = "Recovering indium from liquid crystal display (LCD) screen waste is important from a sustainability point of view for several reasons: the environmentally hazardous metals are not landfilled, the recovery process involves lower CO2 emissions than primary production, and supply from secondary sources matches the continuously increasing demand of indium. In this study, two alternative process routes for recycling the critical metal, indium, from LCD panel waste were studied and compared using laboratory and bench-scale experiments. The first process was a conventional hydrometallurgical process that involves manual dismantling, hammer mill crushing of the glass, cross-current sulfuric acid leaching of the metals, and liquid-liquid extraction separation of indium. Using this process, over 99{\%} pure indium solution can be produced with a recovery yield of over 70{\%}. The second process is novel because it includes (manual) scraping of the indium tin oxide (ITO) layer from the glass panels, followed by sulfuric acid leaching of the metals. The yield of indium was over 80{\%}, and the purity of the resulting solution was over 99{\%}. The solutions obtained from either of the suggested processes were sufficiently pure for cementing indium in high purity. The novel process appears much more straightforward and economically more feasible because the polarizing filter need not be removed and the liquid-liquid extraction purification step is excluded. Moreover, less amount of leaching acid is required.",
keywords = "Bench-scale, Hydrometallurgy, Indium, Indium tin oxide (ITO), LCD panels, Physical separation",
author = "Sami Virolainen and Tommi Huhtanen and Antero Laitinen and Tuomo Sainio",
year = "2020",
month = "1",
day = "10",
doi = "10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118599",
language = "English",
volume = "243",
journal = "Journal of Cleaner Production",
issn = "0959-6526",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Two alternative process routes for recovering pure indium from waste liquid crystal display panels. / Virolainen, Sami (Corresponding Author); Huhtanen, Tommi; Laitinen, Antero; Sainio, Tuomo.

In: Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 243, 118599, 10.01.2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Two alternative process routes for recovering pure indium from waste liquid crystal display panels

AU - Virolainen, Sami

AU - Huhtanen, Tommi

AU - Laitinen, Antero

AU - Sainio, Tuomo

PY - 2020/1/10

Y1 - 2020/1/10

N2 - Recovering indium from liquid crystal display (LCD) screen waste is important from a sustainability point of view for several reasons: the environmentally hazardous metals are not landfilled, the recovery process involves lower CO2 emissions than primary production, and supply from secondary sources matches the continuously increasing demand of indium. In this study, two alternative process routes for recycling the critical metal, indium, from LCD panel waste were studied and compared using laboratory and bench-scale experiments. The first process was a conventional hydrometallurgical process that involves manual dismantling, hammer mill crushing of the glass, cross-current sulfuric acid leaching of the metals, and liquid-liquid extraction separation of indium. Using this process, over 99% pure indium solution can be produced with a recovery yield of over 70%. The second process is novel because it includes (manual) scraping of the indium tin oxide (ITO) layer from the glass panels, followed by sulfuric acid leaching of the metals. The yield of indium was over 80%, and the purity of the resulting solution was over 99%. The solutions obtained from either of the suggested processes were sufficiently pure for cementing indium in high purity. The novel process appears much more straightforward and economically more feasible because the polarizing filter need not be removed and the liquid-liquid extraction purification step is excluded. Moreover, less amount of leaching acid is required.

AB - Recovering indium from liquid crystal display (LCD) screen waste is important from a sustainability point of view for several reasons: the environmentally hazardous metals are not landfilled, the recovery process involves lower CO2 emissions than primary production, and supply from secondary sources matches the continuously increasing demand of indium. In this study, two alternative process routes for recycling the critical metal, indium, from LCD panel waste were studied and compared using laboratory and bench-scale experiments. The first process was a conventional hydrometallurgical process that involves manual dismantling, hammer mill crushing of the glass, cross-current sulfuric acid leaching of the metals, and liquid-liquid extraction separation of indium. Using this process, over 99% pure indium solution can be produced with a recovery yield of over 70%. The second process is novel because it includes (manual) scraping of the indium tin oxide (ITO) layer from the glass panels, followed by sulfuric acid leaching of the metals. The yield of indium was over 80%, and the purity of the resulting solution was over 99%. The solutions obtained from either of the suggested processes were sufficiently pure for cementing indium in high purity. The novel process appears much more straightforward and economically more feasible because the polarizing filter need not be removed and the liquid-liquid extraction purification step is excluded. Moreover, less amount of leaching acid is required.

KW - Bench-scale

KW - Hydrometallurgy

KW - Indium

KW - Indium tin oxide (ITO)

KW - LCD panels

KW - Physical separation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85072738153&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118599

DO - 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118599

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85072738153

VL - 243

JO - Journal of Cleaner Production

JF - Journal of Cleaner Production

SN - 0959-6526

M1 - 118599

ER -