Two-stage SQUID amplifier for the frequency multiplexed readout of the X-IFU x-ray camera

Mikko Kiviranta, Leif Grönberg, Tuomas Puranen, Jan Van der Kuur, Nikolai Beev, Jaakko Salonen, Dibyendu Hazra, Seppo Korpela

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
308 Downloads (Pure)


The X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) is a cryogenic X-ray camera intended for the ATHENA space observatory. Its focal plane will contain a kilopixel array of Transition Edge Sensors (TESs), originally intended to be read out by a Frequency Do-main Multiplexer involving 40 carrier frequencies in the 1-5 MHz range per readout channel. We review dimensioning prin-ciples and fabrication of a SQUID tandem, operating at 50 mK and 2 K temperatures, intended to amplify the multiplexed sig-nal from the TES array. The first measurements indicate a 40 coupled energy resolution in the relevant frequency band, and sufficient linearity to reach the required 1% total harmonic dis-tortion. Additionally, we describe the non-multiplexed amplifier SQUID for the X-IFU anti-coincidence detector.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9357957
Number of pages5
JournalIEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Fabrication
  • Frequency division multiplexing
  • Gold
  • Inductance
  • Iron
  • Josephson device fabrication
  • Multiplexing
  • SQUID designs and applications
  • SQUIDs
  • Transition-edge sensors (TES) devices
  • Wiring


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