Ultrasonic depolymerization of aqueous polyvinyl alcohol

Antti Grönroos (Corresponding Author), Pentti Pirkonen, Juha Heikkinen, Jorma Ihalainen, Hannu Mursunen, Hannu Sekki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

80 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ultrasonication has proved to be a highly advantageous method for depolymerizing macromolecules because it reduces their molecular weight simply by splitting the most susceptible chemical bond without causing any changes in the chemical nature of the polymer. Most of the effects involved in controlling molecular weight can be attributed to the large shear gradients and shock waves generated around collapsing cavitation bubbles. In general, for any polymer degradation process to become acceptable to industry, it is necessary to be able to specify the sonication conditions which lead to a particular relative molar mass distribution. This necessitates the identification of the appropriate irradiation power, temperature, concentration and irradiation time. According to the results of this study the reactors constructed worked well in depolymerization and it was possible to degrade aqueous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer with ultrasound. The most extensive degradation took place at the lowest frequency used in this study, i.e. 23 kHz, when the input power was above the cavitation threshold and at the lowest test concentration of PVA, i.e. 1% (w/w). Thus this study confirms the general assumption that the shear forces generated by the rapid motion of the solvent following cavitational collapse are responsible for the breakage of the chemical bonds within the polymer. The effect of polymer concentration can be interpreted in terms of the increase in viscosity with concentration, causing the molecules to become less mobile in solution and the velocity gradients around the collapsing bubbles to therefore become smaller.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)259-264
Number of pages6
JournalUltrasonics Sonochemistry
Volume8
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2001
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Polyvinyl Alcohol
depolymerization
Depolymerization
polyvinyl alcohol
Polyvinyl alcohols
Ultrasonics
Polymers
ultrasonics
polymers
Chemical bonds
chemical bonds
cavitation flow
Bubbles (in fluids)
Cavitation
molecular weight
bubbles
Molecular Weight
Molecular weight
Irradiation
degradation

Keywords

  • polymers
  • polyvinyl alcohol
  • depolymerization
  • ultrasound
  • sonochemistry

Cite this

Grönroos, Antti ; Pirkonen, Pentti ; Heikkinen, Juha ; Ihalainen, Jorma ; Mursunen, Hannu ; Sekki, Hannu. / Ultrasonic depolymerization of aqueous polyvinyl alcohol. In: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 2001 ; Vol. 8, No. 3. pp. 259-264.
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Ultrasonic depolymerization of aqueous polyvinyl alcohol. / Grönroos, Antti (Corresponding Author); Pirkonen, Pentti; Heikkinen, Juha; Ihalainen, Jorma; Mursunen, Hannu; Sekki, Hannu.

In: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2001, p. 259-264.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Ultrasonic depolymerization of aqueous polyvinyl alcohol

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AU - Sekki, Hannu

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AB - Ultrasonication has proved to be a highly advantageous method for depolymerizing macromolecules because it reduces their molecular weight simply by splitting the most susceptible chemical bond without causing any changes in the chemical nature of the polymer. Most of the effects involved in controlling molecular weight can be attributed to the large shear gradients and shock waves generated around collapsing cavitation bubbles. In general, for any polymer degradation process to become acceptable to industry, it is necessary to be able to specify the sonication conditions which lead to a particular relative molar mass distribution. This necessitates the identification of the appropriate irradiation power, temperature, concentration and irradiation time. According to the results of this study the reactors constructed worked well in depolymerization and it was possible to degrade aqueous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer with ultrasound. The most extensive degradation took place at the lowest frequency used in this study, i.e. 23 kHz, when the input power was above the cavitation threshold and at the lowest test concentration of PVA, i.e. 1% (w/w). Thus this study confirms the general assumption that the shear forces generated by the rapid motion of the solvent following cavitational collapse are responsible for the breakage of the chemical bonds within the polymer. The effect of polymer concentration can be interpreted in terms of the increase in viscosity with concentration, causing the molecules to become less mobile in solution and the velocity gradients around the collapsing bubbles to therefore become smaller.

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