Understanding Extensibility of Paper: Role of Fiber Elongation and Fiber Bonding

Jarmo Kouko (Corresponding Author), Tuomas Turpeinen, Artem Kulachenko, Ulrich Hirn, Elias Retulainen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


The tensile tests of individual bleached softwood kraft pulp fibers and sheets and micromechanical simulation of fiber network suggest that only a part of the elongation potential of individual fibers is utilized in the elongation of sheet. The stress-strain curves of two actual individual pulp fibers and one artificial fiber were applied to a micromechanical simulation of random fiber networks. The both experimental results and micromechanical simulations indicated that fiber bonding has an important role not only in determining the strength but also the elongation of fiber networks. Additionally, the results indicate that the shape of stress-strain curve of individual pulp fibers may have significant influence on the shape of stress-strain curve of a paper sheet. A large increase in elongation and strength of a paper can be reached only by strengthening fiber-fiber bonding, as demonstrated by the experimental hand sheets with starch and CMF and by the micromechanical simulations. The key conclusion related to this investigation was that simulated uniform inter-fiber bond strength does not have influence on the shape of stress-strain curve of fiber network until the bonds fail, whereas number of bonds have influence on activation of the fiber network and on the shape of stress-strain curve.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)125-135
JournalTappi Journal
Issue numberMarch
Publication statusPublished - 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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