Unmanned Agricultural Tractors in Private Mobile Networks

Marjo Heikkilä (Corresponding Author), Jani Suomalainen (Corresponding Author), Ossi Saukko, Tero Kippola, Kalle Lähetkangas, Pekka Koskela, Juha Kalliovaara, Haapala Hannu, Pirttiniemi Juho, Anastasia Yastrebova, Harri Posti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The need for high-quality communications networks is urgent in data-based farming. A particular challenge is how to achieve reliable, cost-efficient, secure, and broadband last-mile data transfer to enable agricultural machine control. The trialed ad hoc private communications networks built and interconnected with different alternative wireless technologies, including 4G, 5G, satellite and tactical networks, provide interesting practical solutions for connectivity. A remotely controlled tractor is exemplified as a use case of machine control in the demonstrated private communication network. This paper describes the results of a comparative technology analysis and a field trial in a realistic environment. The study includes the practical implementation of video monitoring and the optimization of the control channel for remote-controlled unmanned agricultural tractors. The findings from this study verify and consolidate the requirements for network technologies and for cybersecurity enablers. They highlight insights into the suitability of different wireless technologies for smart farming and tractor scenarios and identify potential paths for future research.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1
Pages (from-to)1-20
Number of pages20
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 30 Dec 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • smart farming
  • remote control
  • unmanned tractor
  • 5G
  • private network
  • field trial
  • controller area network
  • tactical network
  • cybersecurity


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