Unregulated emissions from nine Euro 5 emission level cars were studied over the European exhaust emissions driving cycle at +23 °C and -7 °C. The cars studied included two MPFI and two DISI gasoline cars using E10 fuel, two FFV cars using E10 and E85 fuels and three diesel cars equipped with diesel particulate filter (DPF). Emissions typically increased when moving from +23 °C to -7 °C. The CO and HC emissions were mostly higher for spark-ignition cars than for diesel cars at both test temperatures. NOx emissions were higher for diesel cars than for spark-ignition cars. Methane and ethene were dominating C1-C8 hydro-carbons for E85 and diesel, whereas benzene, toluene, and xylenes were dominating for E10 fuelled cars. Particularly high aromatic emissions were seen for E10 fuelled FFV car at -7 °C. Aldehyde emissions were generally low for cars using E10. High acetaldehyde and ethanol emissions were observed for E85. Formaldehyde emissions were higher for cars using diesel or E85 than for cars using E10. Substantial catalyst chemistry dependent ammonia emissions were observed for spark-ignition cars, but not for diesel cars. The highest emissions of PM and priority PAHs were observed for E10 fuelled FFV cars, the second highest for the other E10 and E85 fuelled cars, and the lowest emissions for the DPF equipped diesel cars. Ames tests showed similar trend between the fuels. Similar trend between cars was seen for the Ames mutagenicity. For many emission species, emissions were lower for newer cars (2013) than for older cars (2011). Gaso-line hybrid emitted in many cases less than other spark-ignition cars. Some noticeable observations on unregulated emissions were gained, for example, unexpectedly high aldehyde emissions for some diesel cars.
|Place of Publication||Espoo|
|Publisher||VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland|
|Number of pages||26|
|Publication status||Published - 2014|
|MoE publication type||D4 Published development or research report or study|
|Series||VTT Research Report|
Roslund, P., Aakko-Saksa, P., Koponen, P., & Nuottimäki, J. (2014). Unregulated emissions from Euro 5 emission level cars. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Research Report, No. VTT-R-04308-14 http://www.transeco.fi/files/793/Unregulated_Emissions_from_Euro_5_Emission_Level_Cars_VTT-R-04308-14.pdf