Use of enzymes to elucidate the factors contributing to bitterness in rye flavour

Raija-Liisa Heiniö (Corresponding Author), Emilia Nordlund, Kaisa Poutanen, Johanna Buchert

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    19 Citations (Scopus)


    In spite of the health-beneficial character of whole grain rye its use may be limited because of bitter taste. The impact of non-volatile chemical compounds on the bitter taste of rye was analysed by the aid of enzymatic hydrolysis, releasing potentially flavour-active compounds from the rye matrix. Whole grain rye flour–water suspension was treated with hydrolytic enzymes, whereafter portions of the rye suspensions were baked into crackers, assessed for their sensory profile as well as solubilised hydrolysis products. Heat treatment reduced the perceived bitterness. The treatment with enzyme preparation with high protease activity increased the bitterness of rye and also wheat flour both as suspension and as crackers. Other enzymes tested (with high polygalacturonase, endo-glucanase, xylanase or amyloglucosidase activity) had no significant impact on the perceived bitterness. Thus, small molecular weight peptides were considered to be a significant contributor to the bitter note of rye.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)31-38
    JournalFood Research International
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2012
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Rye
    • whole grain
    • sensory evaluation
    • flavour
    • bitterness
    • enzymes
    • peptides


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