Abstract
Original language  English 

Qualification  Doctor Degree 
Awarding Institution 

Supervisors/Advisors 

Award date  19 Dec 2008 
Place of Publication  Espoo 
Publisher  
Print ISBNs  9789513871291 
Electronic ISBNs  9789513871307 
Publication status  Published  2008 
MoE publication type  G5 Doctoral dissertation (article) 
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Keywords
 fusion neutronics
 MCNP
 variance reduction
 importances
 weight windows
 tally source method
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Using MCNP for fusion neutronics : Dissertation. / Wasastjerna, Frej.
Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2008. 132 p.Research output: Thesis › Dissertation
TY  THES
T1  Using MCNP for fusion neutronics
T2  Dissertation
AU  Wasastjerna, Frej
PY  2008
Y1  2008
N2  Any fusion reactor using tritiumdeuterium fusion will be a prolific source of 14 MeV neutrons. In fact, 80% of the fusion energy will be carried away by these neutrons. Thus it is essential to calculate what will happen to them, so that such quantities as the tritium breeding ratio, the neutron wall loading, heat deposition, various kinds of material damage and biological dose rates can be determined. Monte Carlo programs, in particular the widelyused MCNP, are the preferred tools for this. The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), intended to test materials in intense neutron fields with a spectrum similar to that prevailing in fusion reactors, also requires neutronics calculations, with similar methods. In some cases these calculations can be very difficult. In particular shielding calculations  such as those needed to determine the heating of the superconducting field coils of ITER or the dose rate, during operation or after shutdown, outside ITER or in the space above the test cell of IFMIF  are very challenging. The thick shielding reduces the neutron flux by many orders of magnitude, so that analog calculations are impracticable and heavy variance reduction is needed, mainly importances or weight windows. On the other hand, the shields contain penetrations through which neutrons may stream. If the importances are much higher or the weight windows much lower at the outer end of such a penetration than at the inner end, this may lead to an excessive proliferation of tracks, which may even make the calculation break down. This dissertation describes the author's work in fusion neutronics, with the main emphasis on attempts to develop improved methods of performing such calculations. Two main approaches are described: trying to determine nearoptimal importances or weight windows, and testing the "tally source" method suggested by John Hendricks as a way of biasing the neutron flux in angle.
AB  Any fusion reactor using tritiumdeuterium fusion will be a prolific source of 14 MeV neutrons. In fact, 80% of the fusion energy will be carried away by these neutrons. Thus it is essential to calculate what will happen to them, so that such quantities as the tritium breeding ratio, the neutron wall loading, heat deposition, various kinds of material damage and biological dose rates can be determined. Monte Carlo programs, in particular the widelyused MCNP, are the preferred tools for this. The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), intended to test materials in intense neutron fields with a spectrum similar to that prevailing in fusion reactors, also requires neutronics calculations, with similar methods. In some cases these calculations can be very difficult. In particular shielding calculations  such as those needed to determine the heating of the superconducting field coils of ITER or the dose rate, during operation or after shutdown, outside ITER or in the space above the test cell of IFMIF  are very challenging. The thick shielding reduces the neutron flux by many orders of magnitude, so that analog calculations are impracticable and heavy variance reduction is needed, mainly importances or weight windows. On the other hand, the shields contain penetrations through which neutrons may stream. If the importances are much higher or the weight windows much lower at the outer end of such a penetration than at the inner end, this may lead to an excessive proliferation of tracks, which may even make the calculation break down. This dissertation describes the author's work in fusion neutronics, with the main emphasis on attempts to develop improved methods of performing such calculations. Two main approaches are described: trying to determine nearoptimal importances or weight windows, and testing the "tally source" method suggested by John Hendricks as a way of biasing the neutron flux in angle.
KW  fusion neutronics
KW  MCNP
KW  variance reduction
KW  importances
KW  weight windows
KW  tally source method
M3  Dissertation
SN  9789513871291
T3  VTT Publications
PB  VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
CY  Espoo
ER 