Design and measurement results of a beam-steering integrated lens antenna at 77 GHz are presented. An 8-element LTCC aperture coupled patch antenna feed array with a switching network is used to electrically steer the main beam in H-plane. A 100-mm diameter Rexolite (εr = 2.53) lens is simulated and tested. The eccentricity of the lens is optimized in an earlier work with ray-tracing simulations for improved beam-steering properties compared to the conventional extended hemispherical and elliptical lenses. The beamsteering properties including scan loss, main-beam width and direction, side-lobe levels, directivity, and cross-polarization are analyzed in detail with both simulations and radiation pattern measurements. As expected, the results show that the side-lobe and cross-polarization levels are not predicted accurately with large feed offsets using the ray-tracing simulations. Nevertheless, it is shown that the lens shape can be successfully optimized with the simple and fast ray-tracing simulations. The measured half-power beam-width at 77 GHz is 2.5°±0.2° up to the largest tested beam-steering angle of 30°. The optimized eccentricity low permittivity lens results in smaller scan loss than the conventional lenses.
Karttunen, A., Säily, J., Lamminen, A., Ala-Laurinaho, J., Sauleau, R., & Räisänen, A. V. (2012). Using optimized eccentricity rexolite lens for electrical beam steering with inte-grated aperture coupled patch array. Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, 44, 345-365. https://doi.org/10.2528/PIERB12082911