Validating Kraken for VVER-1000 fuel cycle simulations using the X2 benchmark

Ville Valtavirta (Corresponding Author), Antti Rintala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This article contributes to the validation of the Kraken framework for VVER-1000 fuel cycle modelling. Four fuel cycles from the X2 VVER-1000 benchmark are simulated along with the start-up tests at the beginning of each cycle. Predicted boron letdown curves, power distributions and start-up test results for the four fuel cycles are compared to measured data from the benchmark as well as the results of similar reactor analysis tools. The comparisons to measured data show that Kraken performs well in the task. The accuracy of Kraken is comparable to other nodal diffusion based solvers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109878
Number of pages14
JournalAnnals of Nuclear Energy
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sept 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Ants
  • Fuel cycle
  • Kraken
  • Serpent
  • VVER-1000
  • X2 benchmark


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