Variational Principle of Least Psychomotor Action: Modelling Effects on Action from Disturbances in Psychomotor Work Involving Human, Cyborg, and Robot Workers

Stephen Fox (Corresponding Author), Adrian Kotelba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Optimal psychomotor work can be expressed in terms of the principle of least psychomotor action (PLPA). Modelling psychomotor action encompasses modelling workers, work, and interactions between them that involve different types of situated entropy. Modelling of psychomotor workers encompasses three types of workers: human, cyborg, and robot. The type of worker and the type of work interact to affect positioning actions, performing actions, and perfecting actions undertaken in psychomotor tasks. There are often disturbances in psychomotor work, for example due to weather conditions, which have a determining influence on what work can be undertaken with least psychomotor action by different types of workers. In this paper, findings are reported from a study focused on the modelling disturbances in psychomotor work. Five contributions are provided. First, a heuristic framework for modelling disturbances and their effects is provided. In addition to PLPA and situated entropy, this framework encompasses Markov processes, the theory of perturbations, and calculus of variations. Second, formulae and ratios are provided for heuristic modelling of effects on internal action (Sint) from disturbances to psychomotor work. Third, formulae and ratios are provided for heuristic modelling of effects on external action (Se). Fourth, examples are provided of heuristic modelling of disturbances in psychomotor work. Fifth, formulae and examples show how task complexity can be modelled heuristically in terms of microstates across the cyber domain and the physical domain of cyber-physical systems. Overall, the study reported in this paper addresses variational aspects of PLPA.
Original languageEnglish
Article number543
JournalEntropy
Volume21
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • artificial intelligence
  • autonomous
  • craft
  • cyber-physical systems
  • cyborg
  • digitalization
  • human industrial
  • manual work
  • Markov chains
  • microstates
  • pertubation theory
  • psychomotor
  • robot
  • situated entropy
  • skills
  • work
  • worker

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