Vibrating boron-doped diamond electrode: A new, durable and highly sensitive tool for the detection of cadmium

Adam Morris, Núria Serrano (Corresponding Author), José Manuel Díaz-Cruz, Avi Bendavid, Miao Chen, Mikko Vepsäläinen (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

In this paper, a vibrating boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode electroanalytical device and respective method for the analysis of ultralow concentrations of Cd(II) in water were studied. The enhanced mass transfer on the electrode surface was studied using Ru(NH3)6Cl3. Vibration with 133 Hz frequency enhanced the Ru(III) to Ru(II) reduction by 92.6% compared to a static electrode. The peak current of the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) method employed was increased by a factor of 5.3 and 4.7 for 10 and 30 μg L−1 Cd(II) concentrations, respectively, when a frequency of 200 Hz was used. A calibration plot with two linear regions was resolved between 0.01 and 1 μg L−1 and 1–30 μg L−1 with the LOD and LOQ of 0.04 μg L−1 and 0.12 μg L−1, respectively. The applicability of the device and the respective method in the analysis of real environmental samples was successfully verified by analysis of river samples and comparing the results with the ICP analysis presenting high reproducibility and trueness. According to the results of this research, the vibrating BDD electrode with the ASV method has excellent analytical performance without surface modification or regular replacement or polishing of the electrode surface. Combining the exceptional electrochemical and chemical properties of BDD with enhanced mass transfer and signal strength of vibrating electrodes makes the system especially suitable for on-site and online analysis of heavy metals.

Original languageEnglish
Article number339166
Number of pages7
JournalAnalytica Chimica Acta
Volume1188
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Dec 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV)
  • Cadmium
  • Ultra-trace analysis
  • Vibrating boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode
  • Voltammetric sensor

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