Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, namely Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, are based on the study of molecular vibrations, and they are complementary techniques to each other. This review provides an overview of the vibrational spectroscopic techniques applied in microbiology during the past decade. In addition, future applications of the elaborated spectroscopic techniques will be highlighted. The results of this review show that both FTIR and Raman spectroscopy are promising alternatives to conventional diagnostic approaches because they provide label-free and noninvasive bacterial detection, identification, and antibiotic susceptibility testing in a single step. Cost-effective, accurate, and rapid tests are needed in order to improve diagnostics and patient care, to decrease the use of unnecessary antimicrobial agents, to prevent resistant microbials, and to decrease the overall burden of outbreaks. Prior to that, however, the presented approaches need to be validated in a clinical workflow against the conventional diagnostic approaches.
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; microbiology; Raman spectroscopy; time- gated Raman spectroscopy; surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy