Virtual prototyping in the design of see-through features in mobile machinery

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5 Citations (Scopus)


Limited visibility from a mobile machine cab can decrease task performance and lead to accidents. Therefore, it is important to consider visibility issues already in the design phase. This paper describes the use of virtual prototyping in the evaluation of see-through features of mobile work machines. The goal is to evaluate whether two different machine boom transparency levels have an effect on task performance. In addition, two alternative placements of overlaid information in the operators’ field of view are assessed. A within-subject design was used in this study. Based on the results, there was no significant difference in performance between the transparency levels. However, the test participants preferred a transparency level of 70–80% (where 0% is completely opaque). Similar results were found with the placement of the overlaid information, which had no significant effect on task performance. Both placements, on the windscreen and on the tunnel wall, were equally favoured by the participants. The findings of this study contribute to the design of see-through features for mobile work machines. In addition, the study demonstrates the use of virtual prototyping in the design of novel features in human–machine systems.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23-37
JournalVirtual Reality
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


This study was funded by Business Finland (previously Tekes—the Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation)—and was carried out as part of the SeeWork research project with the FIMA (Forum for Intelligent Machines) network.


  • Human factors and ergonomics
  • See-through technology
  • Virtual prototyping
  • Virtual reality


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