VNbCrMo refractory high-entropy alloy for nuclear applications

P. A. Ferreirós, S. O. von Tiedemann, N. Parkes, D. Gurah, D. J.M. King, P. Norman, M. R. Gilbert, A. J. Knowles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Refractory high-entropy alloys (RHEAs) with high melting points and low neutron absorption cross-section are sought for generation-IV fission and fusion reactors. A high throughput computational screening tool, Alloy Search and Predict (ASAP), was used to identify promising RHEA candidates from over 1 million four-element equimolar combinations. The selected VNbCrMo RHEA was further studied by CALPHAD to predict phase formation, which was compared to an experimentally produced ingot aged at 1200 °C. The VNbCrMo RHEA was found to constitute a majority bcc phase, with a 6% area fraction of C15-Laves formed at interdendritic regions, in contrast to the predictions of single-phase. The prediction of the yield strength by a model based upon edge dislocation mechanisms indicated 2.1 GPa at room temperature and 850 MPa at 1000 °C for the equimolar single bcc phase. The hardness of the alloy with C15-Laves was 748 HV (yield strength ∼2.4 GPa). Finally, the macroscopic neutron absorption cross-section was modelled for a wide range of energies. Displacements per atom per year and activation calculations, up to 1000 years after 2 years of continuous operation, in typical fusion and fission reactor scenarios were also performed using the inventory code FISPACT-II. This work gives new insight into the phase stability and performance of the VNbCrMo RHEA, which is compared with a similar design concept alloy, to assess the potential of novel RHEAs for use in advanced nuclear applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106200
JournalInternational Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • BCC
  • C15 laves
  • CCA
  • HEA
  • Refractory
  • VNbCrMo


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