Volatilization of the heavy metals during circulating fluidized bed combustion of forest residue

Terttaliisa Lind (Corresponding Author), Tuomas Valmari, George Sfiris, Kristina Nilsson, Willy Maenhaut, Esko I. Kauppinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

102 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The environmental impact of the heavy metals contained in the combustion product ash depends on the speciation of the heavy metals and the size distributions of the heavy metals in the ash. Therefore, the behavior of cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc was studied experimentally during circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) of Swedish forest residue. The size distributions and concentrations of the heavy metals in the fly ash particles and in the gas phase were determined by low-pressure impactors and filters upstream of the convective back pass at 830 °C. Downstream of the convective back pass at T = 150 °C, the size distributions were determined. The fly ash from CFBC was found to contain two separate particle classes. Fine particles (Dp < 0.5 μm) consisted mainly of KCl, and coarse particles (Dp > 0.5 μm) contained as major elements Ca and Si. Major fraction of all the studied heavy metals were found in the coarse fly ash particles at location 1 at 830 °C; 7−26% of Pb, 24−27% of Cu, 1−8% of Cd, and less than 1% of Zn were found in the gas phase. The gas-to-particle conversion route for Cd, Pb, and Cu was found by chemical surface reaction, probably with silicates. None of the studied heavy metals were enriched in the fine particles at the inlet of the electrostatic precipitator.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)496-502
Number of pages7
JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
Volume33
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1999
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Fluidized bed combustion
Heavy Metals
volatilization
Vaporization
combustion
heavy metal
Coal Ash
Ashes
fly ash
Gases
ash
gas
Silicates
Electrostatic precipitators
Surface reactions
Cadmium
Environmental impact
particle
low pressure
Zinc

Keywords

  • fluidized beds

Cite this

Lind, T., Valmari, T., Sfiris, G., Nilsson, K., Maenhaut, W., & Kauppinen, E. I. (1999). Volatilization of the heavy metals during circulating fluidized bed combustion of forest residue. Environmental Science & Technology, 33(3), 496-502. https://doi.org/10.1021/es9802596
Lind, Terttaliisa ; Valmari, Tuomas ; Sfiris, George ; Nilsson, Kristina ; Maenhaut, Willy ; Kauppinen, Esko I. / Volatilization of the heavy metals during circulating fluidized bed combustion of forest residue. In: Environmental Science & Technology. 1999 ; Vol. 33, No. 3. pp. 496-502.
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abstract = "The environmental impact of the heavy metals contained in the combustion product ash depends on the speciation of the heavy metals and the size distributions of the heavy metals in the ash. Therefore, the behavior of cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc was studied experimentally during circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) of Swedish forest residue. The size distributions and concentrations of the heavy metals in the fly ash particles and in the gas phase were determined by low-pressure impactors and filters upstream of the convective back pass at 830 °C. Downstream of the convective back pass at T = 150 °C, the size distributions were determined. The fly ash from CFBC was found to contain two separate particle classes. Fine particles (Dp < 0.5 μm) consisted mainly of KCl, and coarse particles (Dp > 0.5 μm) contained as major elements Ca and Si. Major fraction of all the studied heavy metals were found in the coarse fly ash particles at location 1 at 830 °C; 7−26{\%} of Pb, 24−27{\%} of Cu, 1−8{\%} of Cd, and less than 1{\%} of Zn were found in the gas phase. The gas-to-particle conversion route for Cd, Pb, and Cu was found by chemical surface reaction, probably with silicates. None of the studied heavy metals were enriched in the fine particles at the inlet of the electrostatic precipitator.",
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Lind, T, Valmari, T, Sfiris, G, Nilsson, K, Maenhaut, W & Kauppinen, EI 1999, 'Volatilization of the heavy metals during circulating fluidized bed combustion of forest residue', Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 496-502. https://doi.org/10.1021/es9802596

Volatilization of the heavy metals during circulating fluidized bed combustion of forest residue. / Lind, Terttaliisa (Corresponding Author); Valmari, Tuomas; Sfiris, George; Nilsson, Kristina; Maenhaut, Willy; Kauppinen, Esko I.

In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 33, No. 3, 1999, p. 496-502.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Volatilization of the heavy metals during circulating fluidized bed combustion of forest residue

AU - Lind, Terttaliisa

AU - Valmari, Tuomas

AU - Sfiris, George

AU - Nilsson, Kristina

AU - Maenhaut, Willy

AU - Kauppinen, Esko I.

N1 - Project code: K5SU0001

PY - 1999

Y1 - 1999

N2 - The environmental impact of the heavy metals contained in the combustion product ash depends on the speciation of the heavy metals and the size distributions of the heavy metals in the ash. Therefore, the behavior of cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc was studied experimentally during circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) of Swedish forest residue. The size distributions and concentrations of the heavy metals in the fly ash particles and in the gas phase were determined by low-pressure impactors and filters upstream of the convective back pass at 830 °C. Downstream of the convective back pass at T = 150 °C, the size distributions were determined. The fly ash from CFBC was found to contain two separate particle classes. Fine particles (Dp < 0.5 μm) consisted mainly of KCl, and coarse particles (Dp > 0.5 μm) contained as major elements Ca and Si. Major fraction of all the studied heavy metals were found in the coarse fly ash particles at location 1 at 830 °C; 7−26% of Pb, 24−27% of Cu, 1−8% of Cd, and less than 1% of Zn were found in the gas phase. The gas-to-particle conversion route for Cd, Pb, and Cu was found by chemical surface reaction, probably with silicates. None of the studied heavy metals were enriched in the fine particles at the inlet of the electrostatic precipitator.

AB - The environmental impact of the heavy metals contained in the combustion product ash depends on the speciation of the heavy metals and the size distributions of the heavy metals in the ash. Therefore, the behavior of cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc was studied experimentally during circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) of Swedish forest residue. The size distributions and concentrations of the heavy metals in the fly ash particles and in the gas phase were determined by low-pressure impactors and filters upstream of the convective back pass at 830 °C. Downstream of the convective back pass at T = 150 °C, the size distributions were determined. The fly ash from CFBC was found to contain two separate particle classes. Fine particles (Dp < 0.5 μm) consisted mainly of KCl, and coarse particles (Dp > 0.5 μm) contained as major elements Ca and Si. Major fraction of all the studied heavy metals were found in the coarse fly ash particles at location 1 at 830 °C; 7−26% of Pb, 24−27% of Cu, 1−8% of Cd, and less than 1% of Zn were found in the gas phase. The gas-to-particle conversion route for Cd, Pb, and Cu was found by chemical surface reaction, probably with silicates. None of the studied heavy metals were enriched in the fine particles at the inlet of the electrostatic precipitator.

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U2 - 10.1021/es9802596

DO - 10.1021/es9802596

M3 - Article

VL - 33

SP - 496

EP - 502

JO - Environmental Science & Technology

JF - Environmental Science & Technology

SN - 0013-936X

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ER -