Vulnerability of complex critical systems: Case water supply and distribution networks

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    Management of complex, interdependent critical infrastructures demands systematic continuity evaluations and capability building for abnormal as well as normal conditions. The changing risk and threat environment creates new vulnerabilities that require an extensive approach to control weak points and support the undisturbed and reliable functions of critical infrastructures. The water contamination case is used to illustrate the complexity of today's changing risk environment. It also showed that without well-established risk analysis the aftermath could be drastic due to the inadequate link between risk analysis and continuity plans.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)241-257
    Number of pages17
    JournalInternational Journal of Risk Assessment and Management
    Issue number2/3
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2011
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • vulnerability
    • critical infrastructure
    • business continuity
    • water supply
    • water contamination
    • complex critical systems
    • risk management
    • Finland
    • distribution networks
    • interdependent infrastructures
    • risk assesment
    • water pollution


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