Wall conditioning in fusion devices with superconducting coils

T. Wauters, D. Borodin, R. Brakel, S. Brezinsek, K. J. Brunner, J. Buermans, S. Coda, A. Dinklage, D. Douai, O. Ford, G. Fuchert, A. Goriaev, H. Grote, Antti Hakola, E. Joffrin, J. Knauer, T. Loarer, H. Laqua, A. Lyssoivan, V. MoiseenkoD. Moseev, J. Ongena, K. Rahbarnia, D. Ricci, V. Rohde, S. Romanelli, S. Sereda, T. Stange, F. L. Tabarés, Lilla Vanó, O. Volzke, E. Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Wall conditioning is essential in tokamak and stellarator research to achieve plasma performance and reproducibility. This paper presents an overview of recent conditioning results, both from experiments in present devices and modelling, in view of devices with superconducting coils, with focus on W7-X, JT-60SA and ITER. In these devices, the coils stay energised throughout an experimental day or week which demands for new conditioning techniques that work in presence of the nominal field, in addition to the proven conditioning methods such as baking, glow discharge conditioning (GDC) and low-Z wall coating through GDC-plasma, which do not work under such condition. The discussed techniques are RF conditioning without plasma current, both in the ion cyclotron and electron cyclotron range of frequencies, and diverted conditioning plasmas with nested magnetic flux surfaces. Similarities and differences between tokamaks and stellarators are highlighted. Finally a conditional tritium recovery strategy for ITER is proposed based on Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning and L-mode plasma results from JET, equipped with an ITER-like wall (beryllium main chamber wall and tungsten divertor).

Original languageEnglish
Article number034002
JournalPlasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 16 Feb 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • ITER
  • Jt-60sa
  • Rf conditioning
  • Tritium recovery
  • W7-x
  • Wall conditioning


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