Water Chemistry and Oxidation in the Primary Circuit (WATCHEM): WATCHEM summary report

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

Abstract

Boron (10B) in the form of boric acid (H3BO3) is commonly used as a neutron poison in PWRs and WWERs. To minimise corrosion of primary circuit structural materials the acidicity of boric acid is compensated by adding lithium hydroxide (LiOH) in PWRs or potassium hydorxide (KOH) in VVERs. Fuel vendors and authorities have set upper limits to Li+ and K+ levels (as well as to some impurities), as both alkali are suspected to increase the oxidation rate of fuel cladding materials. Longer fuel cycles and higher burn-up of fuel require higher 10B concentration and thus higher Li+ or K+ levels in the beginning of cycle. There is a need for better understanding of the oxidation process and the mechanism by which the alkali and impurities affect the rate of the process.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010
Subtitle of host publicationFinal report
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Pages381-391
ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-7690-6
ISBN (Print)978-951-38-7689-0
Publication statusPublished - 2011
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

SeriesVTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes
Number2571
ISSN1235-0605

Fingerprint

Oxidation
Water
Networks (circuits)
Alkalies
Impurities
Boron
Poisons
Potassium
Neutrons
Corrosion
boric acid
lithium hydroxide

Cite this

Kinnunen, P., & Saario, T. (2011). Water Chemistry and Oxidation in the Primary Circuit (WATCHEM): WATCHEM summary report. In SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010: Final report (pp. 381-391). Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes, No. 2571
Kinnunen, Petri ; Saario, Timo. / Water Chemistry and Oxidation in the Primary Circuit (WATCHEM) : WATCHEM summary report. SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010: Final report. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2011. pp. 381-391 (VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes; No. 2571).
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abstract = "Boron (10B) in the form of boric acid (H3BO3) is commonly used as a neutron poison in PWRs and WWERs. To minimise corrosion of primary circuit structural materials the acidicity of boric acid is compensated by adding lithium hydroxide (LiOH) in PWRs or potassium hydorxide (KOH) in VVERs. Fuel vendors and authorities have set upper limits to Li+ and K+ levels (as well as to some impurities), as both alkali are suspected to increase the oxidation rate of fuel cladding materials. Longer fuel cycles and higher burn-up of fuel require higher 10B concentration and thus higher Li+ or K+ levels in the beginning of cycle. There is a need for better understanding of the oxidation process and the mechanism by which the alkali and impurities affect the rate of the process.",
author = "Petri Kinnunen and Timo Saario",
year = "2011",
language = "English",
isbn = "978-951-38-7689-0",
series = "VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes",
publisher = "VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland",
number = "2571",
pages = "381--391",
booktitle = "SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010",
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}

Kinnunen, P & Saario, T 2011, Water Chemistry and Oxidation in the Primary Circuit (WATCHEM): WATCHEM summary report. in SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010: Final report. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes, no. 2571, pp. 381-391.

Water Chemistry and Oxidation in the Primary Circuit (WATCHEM) : WATCHEM summary report. / Kinnunen, Petri; Saario, Timo.

SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010: Final report. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2011. p. 381-391 (VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes; No. 2571).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

TY - CHAP

T1 - Water Chemistry and Oxidation in the Primary Circuit (WATCHEM)

T2 - WATCHEM summary report

AU - Kinnunen, Petri

AU - Saario, Timo

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Boron (10B) in the form of boric acid (H3BO3) is commonly used as a neutron poison in PWRs and WWERs. To minimise corrosion of primary circuit structural materials the acidicity of boric acid is compensated by adding lithium hydroxide (LiOH) in PWRs or potassium hydorxide (KOH) in VVERs. Fuel vendors and authorities have set upper limits to Li+ and K+ levels (as well as to some impurities), as both alkali are suspected to increase the oxidation rate of fuel cladding materials. Longer fuel cycles and higher burn-up of fuel require higher 10B concentration and thus higher Li+ or K+ levels in the beginning of cycle. There is a need for better understanding of the oxidation process and the mechanism by which the alkali and impurities affect the rate of the process.

AB - Boron (10B) in the form of boric acid (H3BO3) is commonly used as a neutron poison in PWRs and WWERs. To minimise corrosion of primary circuit structural materials the acidicity of boric acid is compensated by adding lithium hydroxide (LiOH) in PWRs or potassium hydorxide (KOH) in VVERs. Fuel vendors and authorities have set upper limits to Li+ and K+ levels (as well as to some impurities), as both alkali are suspected to increase the oxidation rate of fuel cladding materials. Longer fuel cycles and higher burn-up of fuel require higher 10B concentration and thus higher Li+ or K+ levels in the beginning of cycle. There is a need for better understanding of the oxidation process and the mechanism by which the alkali and impurities affect the rate of the process.

M3 - Chapter or book article

SN - 978-951-38-7689-0

T3 - VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes

SP - 381

EP - 391

BT - SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Kinnunen P, Saario T. Water Chemistry and Oxidation in the Primary Circuit (WATCHEM): WATCHEM summary report. In SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010: Final report. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. 2011. p. 381-391. (VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes; No. 2571).