Water Chemistry and Oxidation in the Primary Circuit (WATCHEM): WATCHEM summary report

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

    Abstract

    Boron (10B) in the form of boric acid (H3BO3) is commonly used as a neutron poison in PWRs and WWERs. To minimise corrosion of primary circuit structural materials the acidicity of boric acid is compensated by adding lithium hydroxide (LiOH) in PWRs or potassium hydorxide (KOH) in VVERs. Fuel vendors and authorities have set upper limits to Li+ and K+ levels (as well as to some impurities), as both alkali are suspected to increase the oxidation rate of fuel cladding materials. Longer fuel cycles and higher burn-up of fuel require higher 10B concentration and thus higher Li+ or K+ levels in the beginning of cycle. There is a need for better understanding of the oxidation process and the mechanism by which the alkali and impurities affect the rate of the process.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationSAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010
    Subtitle of host publicationFinal report
    Place of PublicationEspoo
    PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
    Pages381-391
    ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-7690-6
    ISBN (Print)978-951-38-7689-0
    Publication statusPublished - 2011
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible

    Publication series

    SeriesVTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes
    Number2571
    ISSN1235-0605

    Fingerprint

    Oxidation
    Water
    Networks (circuits)
    Alkalies
    Impurities
    Boron
    Poisons
    Potassium
    Neutrons
    Corrosion
    boric acid
    lithium hydroxide

    Cite this

    Kinnunen, P., & Saario, T. (2011). Water Chemistry and Oxidation in the Primary Circuit (WATCHEM): WATCHEM summary report. In SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010: Final report (pp. 381-391). Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes, No. 2571
    Kinnunen, Petri ; Saario, Timo. / Water Chemistry and Oxidation in the Primary Circuit (WATCHEM) : WATCHEM summary report. SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010: Final report. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2011. pp. 381-391 (VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes; No. 2571).
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    title = "Water Chemistry and Oxidation in the Primary Circuit (WATCHEM): WATCHEM summary report",
    abstract = "Boron (10B) in the form of boric acid (H3BO3) is commonly used as a neutron poison in PWRs and WWERs. To minimise corrosion of primary circuit structural materials the acidicity of boric acid is compensated by adding lithium hydroxide (LiOH) in PWRs or potassium hydorxide (KOH) in VVERs. Fuel vendors and authorities have set upper limits to Li+ and K+ levels (as well as to some impurities), as both alkali are suspected to increase the oxidation rate of fuel cladding materials. Longer fuel cycles and higher burn-up of fuel require higher 10B concentration and thus higher Li+ or K+ levels in the beginning of cycle. There is a need for better understanding of the oxidation process and the mechanism by which the alkali and impurities affect the rate of the process.",
    author = "Petri Kinnunen and Timo Saario",
    year = "2011",
    language = "English",
    isbn = "978-951-38-7689-0",
    series = "VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes",
    publisher = "VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland",
    number = "2571",
    pages = "381--391",
    booktitle = "SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010",
    address = "Finland",

    }

    Kinnunen, P & Saario, T 2011, Water Chemistry and Oxidation in the Primary Circuit (WATCHEM): WATCHEM summary report. in SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010: Final report. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes, no. 2571, pp. 381-391.

    Water Chemistry and Oxidation in the Primary Circuit (WATCHEM) : WATCHEM summary report. / Kinnunen, Petri; Saario, Timo.

    SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010: Final report. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2011. p. 381-391 (VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes; No. 2571).

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

    TY - CHAP

    T1 - Water Chemistry and Oxidation in the Primary Circuit (WATCHEM)

    T2 - WATCHEM summary report

    AU - Kinnunen, Petri

    AU - Saario, Timo

    PY - 2011

    Y1 - 2011

    N2 - Boron (10B) in the form of boric acid (H3BO3) is commonly used as a neutron poison in PWRs and WWERs. To minimise corrosion of primary circuit structural materials the acidicity of boric acid is compensated by adding lithium hydroxide (LiOH) in PWRs or potassium hydorxide (KOH) in VVERs. Fuel vendors and authorities have set upper limits to Li+ and K+ levels (as well as to some impurities), as both alkali are suspected to increase the oxidation rate of fuel cladding materials. Longer fuel cycles and higher burn-up of fuel require higher 10B concentration and thus higher Li+ or K+ levels in the beginning of cycle. There is a need for better understanding of the oxidation process and the mechanism by which the alkali and impurities affect the rate of the process.

    AB - Boron (10B) in the form of boric acid (H3BO3) is commonly used as a neutron poison in PWRs and WWERs. To minimise corrosion of primary circuit structural materials the acidicity of boric acid is compensated by adding lithium hydroxide (LiOH) in PWRs or potassium hydorxide (KOH) in VVERs. Fuel vendors and authorities have set upper limits to Li+ and K+ levels (as well as to some impurities), as both alkali are suspected to increase the oxidation rate of fuel cladding materials. Longer fuel cycles and higher burn-up of fuel require higher 10B concentration and thus higher Li+ or K+ levels in the beginning of cycle. There is a need for better understanding of the oxidation process and the mechanism by which the alkali and impurities affect the rate of the process.

    M3 - Chapter or book article

    SN - 978-951-38-7689-0

    T3 - VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes

    SP - 381

    EP - 391

    BT - SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010

    PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

    CY - Espoo

    ER -

    Kinnunen P, Saario T. Water Chemistry and Oxidation in the Primary Circuit (WATCHEM): WATCHEM summary report. In SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010: Final report. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. 2011. p. 381-391. (VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes; No. 2571).