Water chemistry and oxidation in the primary circuit (WATCHEM)

WATCHEM summary report: Development and verification of in situ techniques to study oxidation and water chemistry effects in the primary circuit

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

Abstract

The focus in the WATCHEM project has been in development of in situ methods (a) to study oxidation of fuel cladding alloys and (b) to study optimisation of passivation (i.e. Hot Conditioning) of PWR reactor circuit surfaces prior to first fuel loading. The Controlled Distance Electrochemistry (CDE) method has been shown to be reliable and to give consistent and repeatable results both in BWR and in PWR conditions. Comparisons of the effects of elevated Li+ (PWR) and K+ (WWER) concentrations on fuel cladding oxidation were performed as part of this project. In studying the sensitivity limits of the CDE method the effects of F- concentration in the beginning of cycle conditions of WWER on Zr-1Nb alloy oxidation were found to be negligible at levels below 100 ppb. Based on a literature study the optimal water chemistry conditions in PWRs for Inconel 600 and 690 materials are 0.5-1 ppm Li+ and 25-30 ccH2/kgH2O. There is a considerable uncertainty in determining the effect of boric acid and the minimum required hot conditioning time. Two new methods were developed in co-operation with Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India, to study the optimisation of the hot conditioning procedure and verified for carbon steel under PHWR water chemistry conditions. Preliminary studies with Inconel 690 under PWR conditions are underway.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010
Subtitle of host publicationInterim Report
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Pages354-362
ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-7267-0
ISBN (Print)978-951-38-7266-3
Publication statusPublished - 2009
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

NameVTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes
PublisherVTT
Number2466
ISSN (Print)1235-0605
ISSN (Electronic)1455-0865

Fingerprint

water chemistry
conditioning
electrochemistry
oxidation
steel
method
in situ
effect
acid
carbon
project

Cite this

Saario, T., & Kinnunen, P. (2009). Water chemistry and oxidation in the primary circuit (WATCHEM): WATCHEM summary report: Development and verification of in situ techniques to study oxidation and water chemistry effects in the primary circuit. In SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010 : Interim Report (pp. 354-362). Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes, No. 2466
Saario, Timo ; Kinnunen, Petri. / Water chemistry and oxidation in the primary circuit (WATCHEM) : WATCHEM summary report: Development and verification of in situ techniques to study oxidation and water chemistry effects in the primary circuit. SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010 : Interim Report . Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2009. pp. 354-362 (VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes; No. 2466).
@inbook{3f3224aac99248ae8095d1e5c25ec9ca,
title = "Water chemistry and oxidation in the primary circuit (WATCHEM): WATCHEM summary report: Development and verification of in situ techniques to study oxidation and water chemistry effects in the primary circuit",
abstract = "The focus in the WATCHEM project has been in development of in situ methods (a) to study oxidation of fuel cladding alloys and (b) to study optimisation of passivation (i.e. Hot Conditioning) of PWR reactor circuit surfaces prior to first fuel loading. The Controlled Distance Electrochemistry (CDE) method has been shown to be reliable and to give consistent and repeatable results both in BWR and in PWR conditions. Comparisons of the effects of elevated Li+ (PWR) and K+ (WWER) concentrations on fuel cladding oxidation were performed as part of this project. In studying the sensitivity limits of the CDE method the effects of F- concentration in the beginning of cycle conditions of WWER on Zr-1Nb alloy oxidation were found to be negligible at levels below 100 ppb. Based on a literature study the optimal water chemistry conditions in PWRs for Inconel 600 and 690 materials are 0.5-1 ppm Li+ and 25-30 ccH2/kgH2O. There is a considerable uncertainty in determining the effect of boric acid and the minimum required hot conditioning time. Two new methods were developed in co-operation with Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India, to study the optimisation of the hot conditioning procedure and verified for carbon steel under PHWR water chemistry conditions. Preliminary studies with Inconel 690 under PWR conditions are underway.",
author = "Timo Saario and Petri Kinnunen",
year = "2009",
language = "English",
isbn = "978-951-38-7266-3",
series = "VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes",
publisher = "VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland",
number = "2466",
pages = "354--362",
booktitle = "SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010",
address = "Finland",

}

Saario, T & Kinnunen, P 2009, Water chemistry and oxidation in the primary circuit (WATCHEM): WATCHEM summary report: Development and verification of in situ techniques to study oxidation and water chemistry effects in the primary circuit. in SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010 : Interim Report . VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes, no. 2466, pp. 354-362.

Water chemistry and oxidation in the primary circuit (WATCHEM) : WATCHEM summary report: Development and verification of in situ techniques to study oxidation and water chemistry effects in the primary circuit. / Saario, Timo; Kinnunen, Petri.

SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010 : Interim Report . Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2009. p. 354-362 (VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes; No. 2466).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

TY - CHAP

T1 - Water chemistry and oxidation in the primary circuit (WATCHEM)

T2 - WATCHEM summary report: Development and verification of in situ techniques to study oxidation and water chemistry effects in the primary circuit

AU - Saario, Timo

AU - Kinnunen, Petri

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - The focus in the WATCHEM project has been in development of in situ methods (a) to study oxidation of fuel cladding alloys and (b) to study optimisation of passivation (i.e. Hot Conditioning) of PWR reactor circuit surfaces prior to first fuel loading. The Controlled Distance Electrochemistry (CDE) method has been shown to be reliable and to give consistent and repeatable results both in BWR and in PWR conditions. Comparisons of the effects of elevated Li+ (PWR) and K+ (WWER) concentrations on fuel cladding oxidation were performed as part of this project. In studying the sensitivity limits of the CDE method the effects of F- concentration in the beginning of cycle conditions of WWER on Zr-1Nb alloy oxidation were found to be negligible at levels below 100 ppb. Based on a literature study the optimal water chemistry conditions in PWRs for Inconel 600 and 690 materials are 0.5-1 ppm Li+ and 25-30 ccH2/kgH2O. There is a considerable uncertainty in determining the effect of boric acid and the minimum required hot conditioning time. Two new methods were developed in co-operation with Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India, to study the optimisation of the hot conditioning procedure and verified for carbon steel under PHWR water chemistry conditions. Preliminary studies with Inconel 690 under PWR conditions are underway.

AB - The focus in the WATCHEM project has been in development of in situ methods (a) to study oxidation of fuel cladding alloys and (b) to study optimisation of passivation (i.e. Hot Conditioning) of PWR reactor circuit surfaces prior to first fuel loading. The Controlled Distance Electrochemistry (CDE) method has been shown to be reliable and to give consistent and repeatable results both in BWR and in PWR conditions. Comparisons of the effects of elevated Li+ (PWR) and K+ (WWER) concentrations on fuel cladding oxidation were performed as part of this project. In studying the sensitivity limits of the CDE method the effects of F- concentration in the beginning of cycle conditions of WWER on Zr-1Nb alloy oxidation were found to be negligible at levels below 100 ppb. Based on a literature study the optimal water chemistry conditions in PWRs for Inconel 600 and 690 materials are 0.5-1 ppm Li+ and 25-30 ccH2/kgH2O. There is a considerable uncertainty in determining the effect of boric acid and the minimum required hot conditioning time. Two new methods were developed in co-operation with Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India, to study the optimisation of the hot conditioning procedure and verified for carbon steel under PHWR water chemistry conditions. Preliminary studies with Inconel 690 under PWR conditions are underway.

M3 - Chapter or book article

SN - 978-951-38-7266-3

T3 - VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes

SP - 354

EP - 362

BT - SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Saario T, Kinnunen P. Water chemistry and oxidation in the primary circuit (WATCHEM): WATCHEM summary report: Development and verification of in situ techniques to study oxidation and water chemistry effects in the primary circuit. In SAFIR2010: The Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2007-2010 : Interim Report . Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. 2009. p. 354-362. (VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes; No. 2466).