Ways to measure spatial presence

Review and future directions

Jari Laarni, Niklas Ravaja, Timo Saari, Saskia Böcking, Tilo Hartmann, Holger Schramm

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The chapter focuses on the measurement of spatial presence. Our aim is review existing measures of spatial presence and provide evaluative classifications of the quality and appropriateness of these measurement methods. In addition to existing methods, we also shortly discuss the appropriateness of measures that have not been extensively used so far, such as "think aloud"-method, dual-task measures, eye-related measures and psychophysiological measures. We discuss the pros and cons of the different measures of spatial presence by using a range of indicators that are typically used to evaluate empirical methods. Both subjective and objective measures are evaluated in detail according to seven criteria, reliability, validity, sensitivity, applicability, diagnosticity, obtrusiveness and implementation requirements. A special emphasis is put on assessing whether a particular measurement method measures what it is aimed to measure (validity); to what degree it is able to discriminate different levels of effects (sensitivity); to what degree it provides information of the causes of differences (diagnosticity); and what its possible application domains are (applicability). Our central conclusion is that we need both objective and subjective indicators of spatial presence, and they should be combined in a single study in a way that makes sense for the specific research question. We also need more comprehensive and better-validated questionnaires that are theoretically derived and tap the multidimensional nature of the phenomenon. Also, objective indicators of spatial presence should be selected on the basis of the specific dimensions of presence being assessed.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationImmersed in Media
Subtitle of host publicationTelepresence Theory, Measurement & Technology
EditorsMatthew Lombard, Frank Biocca, Jonathan Freeman, Wijnand IJsselsteijn, Rachel J. Schaevitz
PublisherSpringer
Pages139-185
Volume2
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-10190-3
ISBN (Print)978-3-319-10189-7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeD2 Article in professional manuals or guides or professional information systems or text book material

Fingerprint

measurement method
empirical method
cause
questionnaire

Keywords

  • applicability
  • diagnosticity
  • implementation requirements
  • methods
  • obtrusiveness
  • reliability
  • sensitivity
  • special presence
  • validity

Cite this

Laarni, J., Ravaja, N., Saari, T., Böcking, S., Hartmann, T., & Schramm, H. (2015). Ways to measure spatial presence: Review and future directions. In M. Lombard, F. Biocca, J. Freeman, W. IJsselsteijn, & R. J. Schaevitz (Eds.), Immersed in Media: Telepresence Theory, Measurement & Technology (Vol. 2, pp. 139-185). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10190-3_8
Laarni, Jari ; Ravaja, Niklas ; Saari, Timo ; Böcking, Saskia ; Hartmann, Tilo ; Schramm, Holger. / Ways to measure spatial presence : Review and future directions. Immersed in Media: Telepresence Theory, Measurement & Technology. editor / Matthew Lombard ; Frank Biocca ; Jonathan Freeman ; Wijnand IJsselsteijn ; Rachel J. Schaevitz. Vol. 2 Springer, 2015. pp. 139-185
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Laarni, J, Ravaja, N, Saari, T, Böcking, S, Hartmann, T & Schramm, H 2015, Ways to measure spatial presence: Review and future directions. in M Lombard, F Biocca, J Freeman, W IJsselsteijn & RJ Schaevitz (eds), Immersed in Media: Telepresence Theory, Measurement & Technology. vol. 2, Springer, pp. 139-185. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10190-3_8

Ways to measure spatial presence : Review and future directions. / Laarni, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Saari, Timo; Böcking, Saskia; Hartmann, Tilo; Schramm, Holger.

Immersed in Media: Telepresence Theory, Measurement & Technology. ed. / Matthew Lombard; Frank Biocca; Jonathan Freeman; Wijnand IJsselsteijn; Rachel J. Schaevitz. Vol. 2 Springer, 2015. p. 139-185.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter or book articleProfessional

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T1 - Ways to measure spatial presence

T2 - Review and future directions

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AU - Ravaja, Niklas

AU - Saari, Timo

AU - Böcking, Saskia

AU - Hartmann, Tilo

AU - Schramm, Holger

PY - 2015

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N2 - The chapter focuses on the measurement of spatial presence. Our aim is review existing measures of spatial presence and provide evaluative classifications of the quality and appropriateness of these measurement methods. In addition to existing methods, we also shortly discuss the appropriateness of measures that have not been extensively used so far, such as "think aloud"-method, dual-task measures, eye-related measures and psychophysiological measures. We discuss the pros and cons of the different measures of spatial presence by using a range of indicators that are typically used to evaluate empirical methods. Both subjective and objective measures are evaluated in detail according to seven criteria, reliability, validity, sensitivity, applicability, diagnosticity, obtrusiveness and implementation requirements. A special emphasis is put on assessing whether a particular measurement method measures what it is aimed to measure (validity); to what degree it is able to discriminate different levels of effects (sensitivity); to what degree it provides information of the causes of differences (diagnosticity); and what its possible application domains are (applicability). Our central conclusion is that we need both objective and subjective indicators of spatial presence, and they should be combined in a single study in a way that makes sense for the specific research question. We also need more comprehensive and better-validated questionnaires that are theoretically derived and tap the multidimensional nature of the phenomenon. Also, objective indicators of spatial presence should be selected on the basis of the specific dimensions of presence being assessed.

AB - The chapter focuses on the measurement of spatial presence. Our aim is review existing measures of spatial presence and provide evaluative classifications of the quality and appropriateness of these measurement methods. In addition to existing methods, we also shortly discuss the appropriateness of measures that have not been extensively used so far, such as "think aloud"-method, dual-task measures, eye-related measures and psychophysiological measures. We discuss the pros and cons of the different measures of spatial presence by using a range of indicators that are typically used to evaluate empirical methods. Both subjective and objective measures are evaluated in detail according to seven criteria, reliability, validity, sensitivity, applicability, diagnosticity, obtrusiveness and implementation requirements. A special emphasis is put on assessing whether a particular measurement method measures what it is aimed to measure (validity); to what degree it is able to discriminate different levels of effects (sensitivity); to what degree it provides information of the causes of differences (diagnosticity); and what its possible application domains are (applicability). Our central conclusion is that we need both objective and subjective indicators of spatial presence, and they should be combined in a single study in a way that makes sense for the specific research question. We also need more comprehensive and better-validated questionnaires that are theoretically derived and tap the multidimensional nature of the phenomenon. Also, objective indicators of spatial presence should be selected on the basis of the specific dimensions of presence being assessed.

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KW - sensitivity

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M3 - Chapter or book article

SN - 978-3-319-10189-7

VL - 2

SP - 139

EP - 185

BT - Immersed in Media

A2 - Lombard, Matthew

A2 - Biocca, Frank

A2 - Freeman, Jonathan

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A2 - Schaevitz, Rachel J.

PB - Springer

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Laarni J, Ravaja N, Saari T, Böcking S, Hartmann T, Schramm H. Ways to measure spatial presence: Review and future directions. In Lombard M, Biocca F, Freeman J, IJsselsteijn W, Schaevitz RJ, editors, Immersed in Media: Telepresence Theory, Measurement & Technology. Vol. 2. Springer. 2015. p. 139-185 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10190-3_8