Whisker carbon formation in catalytic steam reforming of biomass gasification gas

Johanna Kihlman (Corresponding Author), Noora Kaisalo, Mari-Leena Koskinen-Soivi, Pekka Simell, Marita Niemelä, Juha Lehtonen

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    10 Citations (Scopus)


    Whisker carbon formation in the steam reforming of biomass gasification gas was studied in a laboratory scale reactor using two commercial nickel catalysts, precious metal catalyst and inert materials. The synthetic feed gas contained ethylene, tar model compounds and H2S as impurities. Whisker carbon was formed below the reaction temperature of 700 °C on an calcium-doped nickel catalyst and below 850 °C on an undoped nickel catalyst when the feed gas contained no sulfur. With the addition of more than 50 ppmv of H2S in the feed gas, the whisker carbon formation was inhibited. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to estimate the upper limit temperature for the whisker carbon formation but the calculations did not correlate well with the experimental results. One of the probable explanations for this was the high concentration of unsaturated C2+ hydrocarbons in the feed gas.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)133-141
    JournalApplied Catalysis A: General
    Publication statusPublished - 25 Aug 2018
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    The Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes), Outotec Oyj, Helsingin Energia, Metso Power Oy, Huoltovarmuuskeskus, Gasum Oy, Neste Oil Oyj, Svenskt Gastekniskt Center AB and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland are acknowledged for the financial support through VETAANI project (Grant Agreement No. 238/31/11).


    • Biomass gasification
    • Nickel catalyst
    • Steam reforming
    • Sulfur
    • Tar
    • Whisker carbon


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