Wind power within European grid codes: Evolution, status and outlook

Til Kristian Vrana, Damian Flynn, Emilio Gomez-Lazaro, Juha Kiviluoma, Davy Marcel, Nicolaos Cutululis, J. Charles Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Grid codes are technical specifications that define the requirements for any facility connected to electricity grids. Wind power plants are increasingly facing system stability support requirements similar to conventional power stations, which is to some extent unavoidable, as the share of wind power in the generation mix is growing. The adaptation process of grid codes for wind power plants is not yet complete, and grid codes are expected to evolve further in the future. ENTSO-E is the umbrella organization for European TSOs, seen by many as a leader in terms of requirements sophistication. A current development by ENTSO-E aims to develop a uniform grid code framework for Europe. The new European codes leave many key aspects unspecified, referring instead to regulation by the relevant TSO, but they do provide a positive and encouraging step in the right direction. The present document is largely based on the definitions and provisions set out by ENTSO-E. The main European grid code requirements are outlined here, including also HVDC connections and DC-connected power park modules. The focus is on requirements that are considered particularly relevant for large wind power plants. Afterwards, an outlook and discussion on possible future requirements is provided. This review has been written by members of IEA Wind Task 25, but it does not represent an official viewpoint of the IEA. This article is categorized under: Wind Power > Systems and Infrastructure.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere285
JournalWiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • grid codes
  • requirements for grid connection
  • wind power plants


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