WLC33-1: Normalization of a fading channel

Aarne Mämmelä, Marko Höyhtyä, Desmond P. Taylor

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper we discuss the proper normalization of a fading channel model. Physically, radio channels correspond to passive circuits and follow the energy conservation law. The ratio of the received energy to the transmitted energy is the energy gain of the channel. The representative energy gain is defined as the average energy gain for a signal that is uniformly distributed in time, frequency and space. The major approaches for normalization include setting of either the average representative energy gain or the peak energy gain to unity. The peak energy gain of many fading models including Rayleigh fading is infinite, which is obviously impossible in a passive system where the peak energy gain should be less than or equal to unity. Our aim is to show that it is due to the normalization that in some cases the performance in a fading channel is better than in a nonfading channel.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIEEE Globecom 2006
PublisherIEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
ISBN (Electronic)1-4244-0357-x
ISBN (Print)1-4244-0356-1
Publication statusPublished - 16 Apr 2007
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
Event49th Annual IEEE GLOBECOM Conference
: 49th Annual IEEE GLOBECOM Technical Conference and IEEE COMMUNICATIONS EXPO Featuring ACCESS '06
- San Francisco, United States
Duration: 27 Nov 20061 Dec 2006
Conference number: 49


Conference49th Annual IEEE GLOBECOM Conference
CountryUnited States
CitySan Francisco


  • Energy conservation law
  • Energy gain
  • Multipath fading
  • Passive systems
  • Transmitter power control

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    Mämmelä, A., Höyhtyä, M., & Taylor, D. P. (2007). WLC33-1: Normalization of a fading channel. In IEEE Globecom 2006 (pp. 1-6). IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. https://doi.org/10.1109/GLOCOM.2006.805