X-ray nanotomography of individual fibre bonds

The effect of fibre wall thickness on contact area

Tuomas Sormunen, Annika Ketola, Arttu Miettinen, Joni Parkkonen , Elias Retulainen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

Abstract

Fibre bonds play an essential role in optical and mechanical properties of paper. Much research has focused on the strength of the bonds but the area of the individual fibre bonds has recently been of interest as well. Many of the research methods rely on optical tools which are restricted by the used wavelength of light. Since the bonding happens in the nanometer scale the highest optical resolution of 200 nm may not be accurate enough to capture the smallest variations in distance between the fibres in the intersection area.X-ray computed tomography utilises X-rays in studying the inner structure of materials. The method is based on X-ray absorption imaging that produces a spatial distribution of attenuation according to the density variation in the sample. After imaging the sample from different angles a reconstruction algorithm is used to recreate a three-dimensional model of the imaged sample. Novel X-ray devices surpass the optical methods in terms of resolution and, in particular, facilitate obtaining a detailed three dimensional image of the sample.X-ray nanotomography has previously been found to be a competent tool in the study of individual fibre bonds . As a continuation to the previous study, the method was used to successfully image 26 individual cellulose fibre bonds made of springwood and summerwood fibres of bleached softwood kraft pulp refined to 25o SR. Various dimensional properties of spring-to-springwood, summer-to-summerwood and spring-to-summerwood bonds were measured, most importantly the relative contact area (RCA, apparent contact area/overlapping area). The RCA values showed a wide variation from 6.4% to 85% with an average value of 57.7 %. Although the summerwood bonds had a somewhat smaller overlapping area and contact area than springwood bonds there were no significant differences in the RCA between the bond types. This suggests that the effect of absolute and relative contact area on the strength differences between the bond types seems to be minor. Typically the contact area in the bond was composed of several separate areas and the edge areas had a clearly higher probability to remain unbonded. The total thickness of the overlapping area correlated with the contact probability probably due to the effect of varying wet pressing pressure.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProgress in Paper Physics Seminar 2018
Subtitle of host publicationAbstract book
EditorsAgnieszka Wysocka-Robak, Katarzyna Dybka-Stępień
Place of PublicationLodz, Poland
PublisherLodz university press
Pages69-71
Number of pages3
ISBN (Print)978-83-7283-941-1
Publication statusPublished - 23 Sep 2018
MoE publication typeNot Eligible
EventProgress in Paper Physics Seminar, PPPS2018 - Lodz, Poland
Duration: 23 Sep 201827 Sep 2018

Seminar

SeminarProgress in Paper Physics Seminar, PPPS2018
Abbreviated titlePPPS2018
CountryPoland
CityLodz
Period23/09/1827/09/18

Fingerprint

X rays
Fibers
Imaging techniques
Kraft pulp
Softwoods
X ray absorption
Cellulose
Spatial distribution
Tomography
Optical properties
Wavelength
Mechanical properties

Keywords

  • X-ray nanotomography
  • fibre bonds
  • bonded area
  • wall thickness

Cite this

Sormunen, T., Ketola, A., Miettinen, A., Parkkonen , J., & Retulainen, E. (2018). X-ray nanotomography of individual fibre bonds: The effect of fibre wall thickness on contact area. In A. Wysocka-Robak, & K. Dybka-Stępień (Eds.), Progress in Paper Physics Seminar 2018: Abstract book (pp. 69-71). Lodz, Poland: Lodz university press.
Sormunen, Tuomas ; Ketola, Annika ; Miettinen, Arttu ; Parkkonen , Joni ; Retulainen, Elias. / X-ray nanotomography of individual fibre bonds : The effect of fibre wall thickness on contact area. Progress in Paper Physics Seminar 2018: Abstract book . editor / Agnieszka Wysocka-Robak ; Katarzyna Dybka-Stępień. Lodz, Poland : Lodz university press, 2018. pp. 69-71
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abstract = "Fibre bonds play an essential role in optical and mechanical properties of paper. Much research has focused on the strength of the bonds but the area of the individual fibre bonds has recently been of interest as well. Many of the research methods rely on optical tools which are restricted by the used wavelength of light. Since the bonding happens in the nanometer scale the highest optical resolution of 200 nm may not be accurate enough to capture the smallest variations in distance between the fibres in the intersection area.X-ray computed tomography utilises X-rays in studying the inner structure of materials. The method is based on X-ray absorption imaging that produces a spatial distribution of attenuation according to the density variation in the sample. After imaging the sample from different angles a reconstruction algorithm is used to recreate a three-dimensional model of the imaged sample. Novel X-ray devices surpass the optical methods in terms of resolution and, in particular, facilitate obtaining a detailed three dimensional image of the sample.X-ray nanotomography has previously been found to be a competent tool in the study of individual fibre bonds . As a continuation to the previous study, the method was used to successfully image 26 individual cellulose fibre bonds made of springwood and summerwood fibres of bleached softwood kraft pulp refined to 25o SR. Various dimensional properties of spring-to-springwood, summer-to-summerwood and spring-to-summerwood bonds were measured, most importantly the relative contact area (RCA, apparent contact area/overlapping area). The RCA values showed a wide variation from 6.4{\%} to 85{\%} with an average value of 57.7 {\%}. Although the summerwood bonds had a somewhat smaller overlapping area and contact area than springwood bonds there were no significant differences in the RCA between the bond types. This suggests that the effect of absolute and relative contact area on the strength differences between the bond types seems to be minor. Typically the contact area in the bond was composed of several separate areas and the edge areas had a clearly higher probability to remain unbonded. The total thickness of the overlapping area correlated with the contact probability probably due to the effect of varying wet pressing pressure.",
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Sormunen, T, Ketola, A, Miettinen, A, Parkkonen , J & Retulainen, E 2018, X-ray nanotomography of individual fibre bonds: The effect of fibre wall thickness on contact area. in A Wysocka-Robak & K Dybka-Stępień (eds), Progress in Paper Physics Seminar 2018: Abstract book . Lodz university press, Lodz, Poland, pp. 69-71, Progress in Paper Physics Seminar, PPPS2018, Lodz, Poland, 23/09/18.

X-ray nanotomography of individual fibre bonds : The effect of fibre wall thickness on contact area. / Sormunen, Tuomas; Ketola, Annika; Miettinen, Arttu; Parkkonen , Joni; Retulainen, Elias.

Progress in Paper Physics Seminar 2018: Abstract book . ed. / Agnieszka Wysocka-Robak; Katarzyna Dybka-Stępień. Lodz, Poland : Lodz university press, 2018. p. 69-71.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

TY - CHAP

T1 - X-ray nanotomography of individual fibre bonds

T2 - The effect of fibre wall thickness on contact area

AU - Sormunen, Tuomas

AU - Ketola, Annika

AU - Miettinen, Arttu

AU - Parkkonen , Joni

AU - Retulainen, Elias

PY - 2018/9/23

Y1 - 2018/9/23

N2 - Fibre bonds play an essential role in optical and mechanical properties of paper. Much research has focused on the strength of the bonds but the area of the individual fibre bonds has recently been of interest as well. Many of the research methods rely on optical tools which are restricted by the used wavelength of light. Since the bonding happens in the nanometer scale the highest optical resolution of 200 nm may not be accurate enough to capture the smallest variations in distance between the fibres in the intersection area.X-ray computed tomography utilises X-rays in studying the inner structure of materials. The method is based on X-ray absorption imaging that produces a spatial distribution of attenuation according to the density variation in the sample. After imaging the sample from different angles a reconstruction algorithm is used to recreate a three-dimensional model of the imaged sample. Novel X-ray devices surpass the optical methods in terms of resolution and, in particular, facilitate obtaining a detailed three dimensional image of the sample.X-ray nanotomography has previously been found to be a competent tool in the study of individual fibre bonds . As a continuation to the previous study, the method was used to successfully image 26 individual cellulose fibre bonds made of springwood and summerwood fibres of bleached softwood kraft pulp refined to 25o SR. Various dimensional properties of spring-to-springwood, summer-to-summerwood and spring-to-summerwood bonds were measured, most importantly the relative contact area (RCA, apparent contact area/overlapping area). The RCA values showed a wide variation from 6.4% to 85% with an average value of 57.7 %. Although the summerwood bonds had a somewhat smaller overlapping area and contact area than springwood bonds there were no significant differences in the RCA between the bond types. This suggests that the effect of absolute and relative contact area on the strength differences between the bond types seems to be minor. Typically the contact area in the bond was composed of several separate areas and the edge areas had a clearly higher probability to remain unbonded. The total thickness of the overlapping area correlated with the contact probability probably due to the effect of varying wet pressing pressure.

AB - Fibre bonds play an essential role in optical and mechanical properties of paper. Much research has focused on the strength of the bonds but the area of the individual fibre bonds has recently been of interest as well. Many of the research methods rely on optical tools which are restricted by the used wavelength of light. Since the bonding happens in the nanometer scale the highest optical resolution of 200 nm may not be accurate enough to capture the smallest variations in distance between the fibres in the intersection area.X-ray computed tomography utilises X-rays in studying the inner structure of materials. The method is based on X-ray absorption imaging that produces a spatial distribution of attenuation according to the density variation in the sample. After imaging the sample from different angles a reconstruction algorithm is used to recreate a three-dimensional model of the imaged sample. Novel X-ray devices surpass the optical methods in terms of resolution and, in particular, facilitate obtaining a detailed three dimensional image of the sample.X-ray nanotomography has previously been found to be a competent tool in the study of individual fibre bonds . As a continuation to the previous study, the method was used to successfully image 26 individual cellulose fibre bonds made of springwood and summerwood fibres of bleached softwood kraft pulp refined to 25o SR. Various dimensional properties of spring-to-springwood, summer-to-summerwood and spring-to-summerwood bonds were measured, most importantly the relative contact area (RCA, apparent contact area/overlapping area). The RCA values showed a wide variation from 6.4% to 85% with an average value of 57.7 %. Although the summerwood bonds had a somewhat smaller overlapping area and contact area than springwood bonds there were no significant differences in the RCA between the bond types. This suggests that the effect of absolute and relative contact area on the strength differences between the bond types seems to be minor. Typically the contact area in the bond was composed of several separate areas and the edge areas had a clearly higher probability to remain unbonded. The total thickness of the overlapping area correlated with the contact probability probably due to the effect of varying wet pressing pressure.

KW - X-ray nanotomography

KW - fibre bonds

KW - bonded area

KW - wall thickness

M3 - Conference abstract in proceedings

SN - 978-83-7283-941-1

SP - 69

EP - 71

BT - Progress in Paper Physics Seminar 2018

A2 - Wysocka-Robak, Agnieszka

A2 - Dybka-Stępień, Katarzyna

PB - Lodz university press

CY - Lodz, Poland

ER -

Sormunen T, Ketola A, Miettinen A, Parkkonen J, Retulainen E. X-ray nanotomography of individual fibre bonds: The effect of fibre wall thickness on contact area. In Wysocka-Robak A, Dybka-Stępień K, editors, Progress in Paper Physics Seminar 2018: Abstract book . Lodz, Poland: Lodz university press. 2018. p. 69-71