Caulobacter crescentus xylonolactonase (Cc XylC, EC 184.108.40.206) catalyzes an intramolecular ester bond hydrolysis over a nonenzymatic acid/base catalysis. Cc XylC is a member of the SMP30 protein family, whose members have previously been reported to be active in the presence of bivalent metal ions, such as Ca2+, Zn2+, and Mg2+. By native mass spectrometry, we studied the binding of several bivalent metal ions to Cc XylC and observed that it binds only one of them, namely, the Fe2+ cation, specifically and with a high affinity (Kd = 0.5 μM), pointing out that Cc XylC is a mononuclear iron protein. We propose that bivalent metal cations also promote the reaction nonenzymatically by stabilizing a short-lived bicyclic intermediate on the lactone isomerization reaction. An analysis of the reaction kinetics showed that Cc XylC complexed with Fe2+ can speed up the hydrolysis of d-xylono-1,4-lactone by 100-fold and that of d-glucono-1,5-lactone by 10-fold as compared to the nonenzymatic reaction. To our knowledge, this is the first discovery of a nonheme mononuclear iron-binding enzyme that catalyzes an ester bond hydrolysis reaction.